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Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”


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Author Topic: Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”  (Read 13456 times)
Kiwithrottlejockey
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« Reply #1225 on: December 09, 2018, 12:51:07 pm »

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« Reply #1226 on: December 09, 2018, 12:51:38 pm »


from The Seattle Times…

Denier-in-chief digs in a little deeper

President Donald Trump says he does not believe the
stark predictions of a new federal climate assessment.


By DAVID HORSEY | 11:13AM PDT — Tuesday, November 27, 2018



THE latest National Climate Assessment, a mandated report produced by scientists tasked for the job by the federal government, paints a dire picture of the myriad ways the economy and environment of the Northwest, as well as the rest of the United States, will soon be undermined by climate change.

If nothing is done to mitigate the effects of global warming, Washington's fisheries and agriculture will be decimated, snowpacks — and ski areas — will grow scarce, wildfires will be even more common and Puget Sound will be more acidic. Nevertheless, the man at the top of the government is in denial.

President Donald Trump, making the dubious claim that he actually looked at the report, told the White House press corps that he does not believe it. This is convenient, since it relieves him of the duty of doing anything about this looming threat to the nation and our region.


__________________________________________________________________________

• See more of David Horsey's cartoons at The Seattle Times HERE.

https://www.seattletimes.com/opinion/denier-in-chief-digs-in-a-little-deeper
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« Reply #1227 on: December 09, 2018, 12:51:50 pm »


from The Seattle Times…

Global warming today mirrors conditions during
Earth's largest extinction event: UW study


If humans continue to pump greenhouse gases at our current rate, “we have no reason
to think it wouldn't cause a similar type of extinction," said Curtis Deutsch,
a University of Washington professor and author of the research.


By EVAN BUSH | 11:00AM PDT — Thursday, December 06, 2018

A melting iceberg floats along a fjord leading away from the edge of the Greenland ice sheet near Nuuk, Greenland, in 2011. By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent, as much as during the Permian extinction event, newly published research says. — Photograph: Brennan Linsley/The Associated Press.
A melting iceberg floats along a fjord leading away from the edge of the Greenland ice sheet near Nuuk, Greenland, in 2011.
By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent,
as much as during the Permian extinction event, newly published research says.
 — Photograph: Brennan Linsley/The Associated Press.


MORE THAN two-thirds of life on earth died off some 252 million years ago, in the largest mass extinction event in Earth's history.

Researchers have long suspected that volcanic eruptions triggered “the Great Dying,” as the end of the Permian geologic period is sometimes called, but exactly how so many creatures died has been something of a mystery.

Now scientists at the University of Washington and Stanford believe their models reveal how so many animals were killed, and they see frightening parallels in the path our planet is on today.

Models of the effects of volcanic greenhouse-gas releases showed the earth warming dramatically and oxygen disappearing from its oceans, leaving many marine animals unable to breathe, according to a study published on Thursday in the peer-reviewed journal Science. By the time temperatures peaked, about 80 percent of the oceans' oxygen, on average, had been depleted. Most marine animals went extinct.

The researchers tested the model's results against fossil-record patterns from the time of the extinction and found they correlated closely. Although other factors, like ocean acidification, might have contributed some to the Permian extinction, warming and oxygen loss account for the pattern of the dying, according to the research.

By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent as much as during the extinction event, the researchers say. By 2300, that figure could be as high as 50 percent.

“The ultimate, driving change that led to the mass extinction is the same driving change that humans are doing today, which is injecting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere,” said Justin Penn, a UW doctoral student in oceanography and the study’s lead author.

Curtis Deutsch, a UW associate professor of oceanography and an author of the research, said if society continues to pump greenhouse gases at our current rate, “we have no reason to think it wouldn't cause a similar type of extinction.”


Massive eruptions

The earth 252 million years ago was a much different place. The continents as we know them today were still mostly one landmass, named Pangea, which looks like a chunky letter “C” on a map.

The climate, however, resembled Earth's now, and researchers believe animals would have adapted many traits, like metabolism, that were similar to creatures today. Nearly every part of the Permian Ocean, before the extinction, was filled with sea life.

“Less than one percent of the Permian Ocean was a dead zone — quite similar to today's ocean,” Deutsch said.

The series of volcanic events in Siberia that many scientists believe set off the mass extinction “makes super volcanoes look like the head of a pin,” said Seth Burgess, a geologist and volcanologist with the United States Geological Survey.

“We're talking about enough lava erupted onto the surface and intruded into the crust to cover the area of the United States that if you looked at the U.S. from above was maybe a kilometer deep in lava,” he said.

Burgess, who has researched the Siberian Traps volcanic events but did not work on the new Science paper, said scientists believe magma rising from the earth released some extinction-causing greenhouse gases.

In addition, sills of magma still inside the earth heated massive deposits of coal, peat and carbonate minerals, among others, which vented even more carbon and methane into the atmosphere.

“That's how you drive the Permian mass extinction, by intruding massive volumes of magma into a basin rich in carbon-bearing sediments,” he said.

The UW and Stanford research “takes the next step in figuring out why things died at the end of the Permian,” Burgess said. “It couples what we think was happening in the climate with the fossil record, and it does it elegantly.”


Animals couldn’t breathe

It took a supercomputer more than six months to simulate all the changes the volcanic eruptions are suspected of causing during the Permian period. The computer models go into remarkable detail — simulating things like clouds, ocean currents and marine plant life — in describing what temperatures and conditions were like on Earth.

The researchers knew that surface temperatures rose about 10 degrees Celsius in the tropics because of previous scientific analysis of the fossilized teeth of eel-like creatures called conodonts.

To run their model, researchers pumped volcanic greenhouse gases into their simulation to match temperature conditions at the end of the Permian period.

As temperatures climbed toward the 10-degree mark, the model's oceans became depleted of oxygen, a trend scientists are evaluating in today's oceans, too.

To measure how rising temperatures and less oxygen would affect animal species of the Permian period, the researchers used 61 modern creatures — crustaceans, fish, shellfish, corals and sharks. The researchers believe these animals would have similar temperature and oxygen sensitivities to Permian species because the animals adapted to live in similar climates.

Warming's effects were twofold on the creatures, the researchers found. In warmer waters, animals need more oxygen to perform bodily functions. But warm waters can't contain as much dissolved oxygen, which means less was available to them.

In other words, as animals' bodies demanded more oxygen, the ocean's supply dropped.

In their model, the researchers were able to quantify the loss of habitat as species faced increasingly challenging ocean conditions. Surface-temperature rise and oxygen loss were more substantial in areas farther from the equator. Extinction rates also increased at higher latitudes.

Animals in the tropics were already accustomed to warmer temperatures and lower oxygen levels before the volcanic eruptions shifted the climate, according to the research. As the world warmed, they could move along with their habitat.

Marine creatures that favored cold waters and high oxygen levels fared worse: They had nowhere to go.

“The high latitudes where it's cold and oxygen is high — if you're an organism that needs those kind of conditions to survive, those conditions completely disappear from Earth,” Deutsch said.

In modern oceans, warming and oxygen loss have also been more pronounced near the poles, researchers said, drawing another analogue between the shift in climate some 252 million years ago and what's happening today.

“The study tells us what's at the end of the road if we let climate [change] keep going. The further we go, the more species we're likely to lose,” Deutsch said. “That's frightening. The loss of species is irreversible.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Evan Bush is a staff reporter at The Seattle Times.

Related to this topic:

More from Science: Climate change and marine mass extinction


https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/environment/global-warming-today-mirrors-conditions-during-earths-largest-extinction-event-uw-study
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« Reply #1228 on: December 09, 2018, 12:52:08 pm »


from The Washington Post…

EDITORIAL: It’s time to face the inescapable truth:
We're running out of time on climate change!


The transition away from fossil fuels will be difficult.
But it is essential for our planet's survival.


By THE WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL BOARD | 7:20PM EDT — Thursday, December 06, 2018

A coal-fired power plant in Germany. Global carbon emissions are estimated to rise by 2.7 percent in 2018. — Photograph: Sascha Steinbach/European Pressphoto Agency/Agencia-EFE/Shutterstock.
A coal-fired power plant in Germany. Global carbon emissions are estimated to rise by 2.7 percent in 2018.
 — Photograph: Sascha Steinbach/European Pressphoto Agency/Agencia-EFE/Shutterstock.


THE WORLD is heading in the wrong direction, and it does not have much time left to change course. After several years in which global greenhouse-gas emissions leveled off, they spiked to record levels this year, according to projections a group of scientists released on Wednesday. Along with some major developing nations, emissions in the United States are projected to grow substantially. So much for all those assurances that the market would take care of the problem.

The news comes just after the United Nations released a report finding that climate change will disrupt human society, kill many people and permanently reshape the Earth unless stemmed aggressively, and soon.

The inescapable truth: The transition from fossil fuels is essential, it is going to be hard, and the United States must step up.

Overall, global emissions are projected to rise by 2.7 percent this year, up more than a point from last year's growth rate. China's emissions are up 5 percent, and India's 6 percent. China remains the world's largest emitter. Even so, its emissions intensity — that is, how much carbon dioxide it spews into the air relative to the size of its economy — has declined substantially in recent years, and the country is still on track to meet the landmark target it set in the Paris climate agreement. India, meanwhile, has lots of poor people struggling to emerge from miserable poverty, who will naturally use more energy as they improve their standard of living. Yet that country is poised to exceed its Paris commitment.

The United States is not, and the country does not have the excuse that its economy is still developing. U.S. emissions are up by 2.5 percent from last year, and it is one of seven major nations lagging on their Paris goals. Canada is also behind, but Prime Minister Justin Trudeau just announced an ambitious carbon-tax plan. The European Union, too, needs to do more to meet its Paris commitment, but its emissions were down this year, and the bloc has worked hard to cut its carbon footprint.

The Trump administration, on the other hand, is trying to push the United States backward. The day after the latest emissions numbers emerged, the Environmental Protection Agency announced another rollback of a regulation on coal-fired power plants, the greatest villains in the climate change story.

The reason for the United States' surge in emissions appears to have been higher energy use to heat and cool homes this year. As the world warms, people will want to use more air conditioning — producing more emissions unless the country gets its energy from low- or zero-carbon sources. This is just one of the many, many factors that make it more sensible to combat climate change before it worsens rather than waiting until it becomes an emergency. World leaders have missed their chance to avoid the warming already here and built into the system. The Trump administration would have humanity miss its window entirely.


__________________________________________________________________________

• Editorials represent the views of The Washington Post as an institution, as determined through debate among members of the Editorial Board. The board includes: Editorial Page Editor Fred Hiatt; Deputy Editorial Page Editor Jackson Diehl; Deputy Editorial Page Editor Ruth Marcus; Associate Editorial Page Editor Jo-Ann Armao, who specializes in education and District affairs; Jonathan Capehart, who focuses on national politics; Lee Hockstader, who writes about immigration, and political and other issues affecting Virginia and Maryland; Charles Lane, who concentrates on economic policy, trade and globalization; Stephen Stromberg, who specializes in energy, the environment, public health and other federal policy; David Hoffman, who writes about foreign affairs and press freedom; Molly Roberts, who focuses on technology and society; and editorial cartoonist Tom Toles. Op-ed editors Michael Larabee, Robert Gebelhoff and Mark Lasswell; letters editor Jamie Riley; international opinions editors Elias Lopez, Karen Attiah and Christian Caryl; international opinions writer Jason Rezaian; digital opinions editor James Downie; operations editor Becca Clemons; editor and writer Christine Emba; and digital producer and writer Mili Mitra also take part in board discussions. The board highlights issues it thinks are important and responds to news events, mindful of stands it has taken in previous editorials and principles that have animated Washington Post editorial boards over time. Articles in the news pages sometimes prompt ideas for editorials, but every editorial is based on original reporting. News reporters and editors never contribute to editorial board discussions, and editorial board members don't have any role in news coverage.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • ‘We are in trouble’. Global carbon emissions reached a record high in 2018.

 • Max Boot: I was wrong on climate change. Why can't other conservatives admit it, too?

 • Robert J. Samuelson: We're on mission impossible to solve global warming

 • Eugene Robinson: Climate change is real. Welcome to the new normal.


https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/its-time-to-face-the-inescapable-truth-were-running-out-of-time-on-climate-change/2018/12/06/d8452156-f99f-11e8-863c-9e2f864d47e7_story.html
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« Reply #1229 on: December 10, 2018, 04:48:52 am »

more fake spammer scaremongering porn
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« Reply #1230 on: December 10, 2018, 08:24:27 am »


Fuck, your ears must be permanently full-of-sand from continually burying your head into the sand while wondering while your arse is getting hot.
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« Reply #1231 on: December 11, 2018, 02:01:53 pm »

really i am sure your head is stuck right up your arse
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« Reply #1232 on: December 13, 2018, 01:44:26 pm »


from The Seattle Times…

Unlike prehistoric creatures, we've
been warned about climate catastrophe


After modeling what seems to have happened to the environment prior to a mass extinction
252 million years ago, scientists at the University of Washington are warning that we all could
be heading toward another huge annihilation if humans continue to pump CO² into the atmosphere.


By DAVID HORSEY | 12:23PM PST — Wednesday, December 12, 2018



IT'S worth remembering that fossil fuels are exactly that: black gunk made up from the remains of dead dinosaurs. All those old raptors and giant plant eaters met their end in a global calamity of one kind or another, but, long before the dinosaurs had their long day in the sun, there were earlier species roaming the land and swimming in the sea during the Permian geologic period. That era came to a dramatic end as massive volcanic activity filled Earth's atmosphere with carbon dioxide. The resulting mass extinction eliminated two-thirds of the planet's life forms.

Now, after modeling what seems to have happened to the environment prior to that extinction 252 million years ago, scientists at the University of Washington are warning that we all could be heading toward another huge annihilation if humans continue to pump CO² into the atmosphere.

In an interview with The Seattle Times, Curtis Deutsch, a UW associate professor of oceanography and an author of the research, said, “The study tells us what's at the end of the road if we let climate [change] keep going. The further we go, the more species we're likely to lose. That's frightening. The loss of species is irreversible.”

One of those species could well be homo sapiens. That's not a happy thought, but, on the plus side, our remains might turn out to be a useful fuel for some future advanced animals who need to get somewhere in a hurry.


__________________________________________________________________________

• See more of David Horsey's cartoons at The Seattle Times HERE.

https://www.seattletimes.com/opinion/unlike-prehistoric-creatures-weve-been-warned-about-climate-catastrophe
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« Reply #1233 on: December 13, 2018, 05:53:48 pm »

Bullshit
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« Reply #1234 on: December 20, 2018, 08:49:15 am »

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« Reply #1235 on: December 23, 2018, 04:52:44 pm »


You've been listening to that lunatic Alex Jones for too long.

He has “FUCKED” your brain.

No wonder you think that god delusion inside your mind is a real god.

If I lived in Woodville, I would stand outside your house every day pointing in your direction and rolling around the ground pissing myself laughing.
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« Reply #1236 on: December 27, 2018, 10:00:16 pm »


from The New York Times…

EDITORIAL: Trump Imperils the Planet

Endangered species, climate change — the administration
is taking the country, and the world, backward.


By THE NEW YORK TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD | Wednesday, December 26, 2018

Illustration: Enzo Pérès-Labourdette.
Illustration: Enzo Pérès-Labourdette.

IT'S HARD TO BELIEVE but it was only three years ago this month — just after 7 p.m., Paris time, December 12, to be precise — that delegates from more than 190 nations, clapping and cheering, whooping and weeping, rose to celebrate the Paris Agreement — the first genuinely collective response to the mounting threat of global warming. It was a largely aspirational document, without strong legal teeth and achieved only after contentious and exhausting negotiations. But for the first time in climate talks stretching back to 1992, it set forth specific, numerical pledges from each country to reduce emissions so that together they could keep atmospheric temperatures from barreling past a point of no return.

Two weeks ago, delegates met at a follow-up conference in Katowice, Poland, to address procedural questions left unsettled in Paris, including common accounting mechanisms and greater transparency in how countries report their emissions. In this the delegates largely succeeded, giving rise to the hope, as Brad Plumer put it in The New York Times, that “new rules would help build a virtuous cycle of trust and cooperation among countries, at a time when global politics seems increasingly fractured.”

But otherwise it was a hugely dispiriting event and a fitting coda to one of the most discouraging years in recent memory for anyone who cares about the health of the planet — a year marked by President Trump's destructive, retrograde policies, by backsliding among big nations, by fresh data showing that carbon dioxide emissions are still going up, by ever more ominous signs (devastating wildfires and floods, frightening scientific reports) of what a future of unchecked greenhouse gas emissions is likely to bring.

The conference itself showcased the very fossil fuels that scientists and most sentient people agree the world must rapidly wean itself from. Poland's president, Andrzej Duda, set the tone by declaring he had no intention of abandoning coal, which provides nearly four-fifths of Poland's electricity. The United States and three other major oil producers — Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Russia — refused to endorse an alarming report issued in October by the United Nations scientific panel on climate change calling for swift reductions in fossil fuel use by 2030 to avoid the worst consequences of climate change, which it said were approaching much faster than anyone had thought.

Wells Griffith, Mr. Trump's international energy and climate adviser, managed in one quote to summarize the dismissiveness of the American delegation and its fealty to the president's apparently unshakable conviction that anything that helps the environment must inevitably hurt the economy. “The United States has an abundance of natural resources and is not going to keep them in the ground,” he said. “We strongly believe that no country should have to sacrifice their economic prosperity or energy security in pursuit of environmental sustainability.” The administration is full of zero-sum philosophers like Mr. Griffith. The idea that sustainability may be a necessary condition of future economic growth appears never to have crossed their minds.

Further depressing the proceedings were recent defections and political troubles in countries that, along with the United States, had been expected to lead the way to a low-carbon energy future. Germany, which long ago walked away from carbon-free nuclear power, is having a hard time cutting back on coal because of political opposition. In Australia, a prime minister was kicked out of office because he wanted to reduce the use of coal, which Australia produces in abundance. China, despite admirably aggressive investments in wind and solar power, has yet to get a firm grip on its emissions from coal-fired plants. The new president-elect of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, not only named an outspoken climate-change denier as his foreign minister but also, reversing his predecessors' policy, pledged to open up the Amazon to mining and farming. This will threaten biodiversity in one of the world's great rain forests while crippling its ability to act as a sink for carbon emissions.

No country's backsliding, of course, compares with Mr. Trump's. Determined to demolish President Barack Obama's entire climate strategy, Mr. Trump has in the past year replaced Mr. Obama's clean-power plan, which was aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants, with an essentially useless substitute that would emit 12 times the pollution envisaged by the Obama plan. He has proposed weakening a major Obama regulation requiring automakers to nearly double the fuel economy of passenger vehicles by 2025. (This rollback, The New York Times reported this month, came after a lot of whining by oil interests, not, as one might suspect, from the auto companies, which had accepted the challenge.) And the Environmental Protection Agency and the Interior Department have taken multiple steps to roll back Obama-era efforts to control emissions of methane, a greenhouse gas many times more powerful than carbon dioxide. These three programs formed the basis of Mr. Obama's pledge at the 2015 Paris meeting to reduce America's greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025.

The health and environmental effects of the Trump rollbacks, as documented by a New York Times investigation published this week, are far-reaching and potentially devastating.

This holiday season has brought more gifts to fossil fuel interests; every day is Christmas Day for the likes of Murray Energy and Exxon Mobil. This month, the E.P.A. proposed killing an Obama rule that would effectively block the construction of new coal-fired power plants. The Interior Department relaxed restrictions on oil and gas drilling in areas inhabited by the sage grouse, a threatened bird. Also in December, the department released an environmental-impact statement that would open all or part of the 1.5 million-acre coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to leasing and exploration. The area had been off limits to drilling for decades until Congress, late last year, approved an amendment sponsored by Senator Lisa Murkowski, an Alaska Republican, to open it up.

All this is fundamentally Mr. Trump's doing. A series of early executive orders established the pro-fossil fuel policy framework; Scott Pruitt, the E.P.A. administrator, and Ryan Zinke, the interior secretary, filled in the details. Mr. Pruitt has left Washington and Mr. Zinke is in his final days, both finishing under ethical clouds. They will deserve, along with Mr. Trump, history's censure for doing virtually nothing to move to a more responsible energy future — and for not doing so at just the moment when the world needed the kind of leadership that Mr. Obama and his secretary of state, John Kerry (and Bill Clinton and Al Gore before them), tried to provide.

The numbers are not great. The goal in Paris was to keep warming from exceeding 2 degrees Celsius over preindustrial levels, and if possible to hold the line at 1.5 degrees, thresholds that scientists deemed unacceptably risky. Delegates knew that even if every country managed to fulfill its individual pledges, the world would be on pace for 3 degrees of warming in this century. So they agreed to tighten the targets as time went on, but instead they've slid backward. Many large emitters are not on track to meet their self-imposed goals. That includes America, despite the retirement of many coal-fired plants in favor of cleaner natural gas, the increasing cost competitiveness of renewable fuels like wind and solar power, and the valiant efforts of states like California to sharply reduce their own emissions and lead where Mr. Trump will not.

The bottom line, according to the Global Carbon Project, is that after three years in which emissions remained largely flat, global levels of carbon dioxide increased by 1.6 percent in 2017 and are on pace to jump by 2.7 percent this year. Some scientists have likened the increase in emissions to a “speeding freight train”. That has a lot to do with economic growth. It also has a lot to do with not moving much faster to less carbon-intensive ways of powering that growth. Or in Mr. Trump's case, moving in the opposite direction.


__________________________________________________________________________

The editorial board represents the opinions of the board, its editor and the publisher. It is separate from the newsroom and the Op-Ed section..

• A version of this editorial appears in The New York Times on Thursday, December 27, 2018, on Page A18 of the New York print edition with the headline: “Trump Imperils the Planet With His Stupidity”.

__________________________________________________________________________

Recent New York Times editorials on climate change:

 • Best Way to Fight Climate Change? Put an Honest Price on Carbon.

 • Wake Up, World Leaders. The Alarm Is Deafening.

 • Where There’s Fire, Trump Blows Smoke


https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/26/opinion/editorials/climate-change-environment-trump.html
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« Reply #1237 on: December 30, 2018, 06:00:54 pm »

more funny shit fake news
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« Reply #1238 on: December 30, 2018, 06:03:54 pm »


You've been listening to that lunatic Alex Jones for too long.

He has “FUCKED” your brain.

No wonder you think that god delusion inside your mind is a real god.

If I lived in Woodville, I would stand outside your house every day pointing in your direction and rolling around the ground pissing myself laughing.


Come and stand outside my house even knock on my door and see what happens next Grin
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« Reply #1239 on: January 12, 2019, 04:45:36 pm »


from The Washington Post…

The oceans are warming faster than we thought,
and scientists suggest we brace for impact


2018 was the warmest year on record in the oceans, the third in a row.

By ANGELA FRITZ | 5:25PM EST — Friday, January 11, 2019

The planet's oceans are actually warming 40 to 50 percent faster than the most recent report from IPCC has predicted. — Photograph: iStock.
The planet's oceans are actually warming 40 to 50 percent faster than the most recent report from IPCC has predicted. — Photograph: iStock.

THE OCEANS are warming faster than climate reports have suggested, according to a new synthesis of temperature observations published this week. The most recent report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change made what turned out to be a very conservative estimate of rise in ocean temperature, and scientists are advising us to adjust our expectations.

“The numbers are coming in 40 to 50 percent [warmer] than the last IPCC report,” said Kevin Trenberth, a climate scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and an author on the report, published in Science Magazine on Thursday.

Furthermore, Trenberth said, “2018 will be the warmest year on record in the oceans” as 2017 was and 2016 before that.

Oceans cover 70 percent of the globe and absorb 93 percent of the planet's extra heat from climate change. They are responsible for spawning disasters like hurricanes Florence and Maria and generating torrential rainfall via meteorological processes with names like “atmospheric river” and “Pineapple Express”.

Sea level is rising with observable consequences along the East Coast and around the world, both physically and financially. Trenberth and his colleagues say if society continues to emit greenhouse gas at its current rate, oceans will rise one foot by the end of the century on top of the rise expected from melting land ice on Greenland and Antarctica.

Scientists have started to pin down how climate change is loading the dice on extreme weather. After Hurricane Harvey, researchers found the storm's deadly and costly effects were probably made worse by warmer oceans. And, as The Washington Post reported in December, “a drought in East Africa that left 6 million people in Somalia facing food shortages was caused by dramatic ocean warming that could not have occurred without humans' impact on the environment.”

After several studies published over the past couple of years, some of which included errors that needed to be corrected and published for the record, “we felt the need to do a more general assessment,” said Trenberth.

The scientists combined four data sets to paint a picture of what has been happening in the oceans since 1991. Trenberth and his co-authors say ocean heat content, which is a measure of the warmth of the water down to about 2,000 meters, is a “great metric for measuring global warming” because the data isn’t as erratic as the temperature on land, and it captures much more of the planet.

In the process, they discovered something interesting: Their data agrees with what the climate models were predicting. “Oh, maybe the models have more credibility than we thought,” Trenberth said, tongue firmly in cheek.

As the planet warms, models have proven an invaluable tool. It's not enough to say the climate is changing — scientists want to know how it is going to change in the future. Yet these models are one of the preferred targets of climate change skeptics. They appeared to miss the so-called global warming hiatus between 1998 and 2013. At the time, scientists posited there wasn't really a hiatus, but that the heat was simply building up in the oceans, or that there was a data collection issue. They were right, but that didn't save the models from criticism.

This synthesis suggests the models are doing just fine. In fact, in the oceans, they are performing even better than expected, and have marched in lockstep with the extreme ocean heating observed by thousands of temperature-collecting floats all over the world. If climate models have actually performed well in the past, it gives scientists more confidence in their predictions for the future.

Trenberth said their comparatively concise article published on Thursday “highlights some of the developments that have occurred since the last IPCC report,” which came out in 2014. The previous one came out in 2007.

Articles like the one in Science are helpful to remind people of the advances that happen in science between the big, sweeping reports, said Tom Di Liberto, a climatologist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The IPCC reports have research deadlines at least a year before they are published; science in the most recent report may have been done six to eight years ago and “there's a whole lot of stuff that has happened since then,” Di Liberto said.

“It speaks to the broader issue of science communication,” he continued. “Science works slower than the way we communicate now.”

Looking forward, there are two scenarios scientists are working with. The low-emissions scenario that the Paris climate change agreement was built around is no longer realistic, Trenberth said. The high-emissions, business-as-usual scenario will probably continue until about 2040, in his opinion, but eventually society will figure out how to manage the crisis.

“Yes, we need to try and stop emitting greenhouse gas. But the inertia is large,” Trenberth said. “Therefore the climate is going to continue to change.” He believes adaptation is the way forward, rather than geo-engineering, which is “not thought out well at all and problematic.”

Di Liberto agrees that we're already feeling the effects, but he sees things changing in society, too.

“We've spent too much time and effort on people who may not be convinced” that climate change is real and important, he said. “But now there seems to be this grass-roots movement of young people who care. I don't remember a time like this.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Angela Fritz is an atmospheric scientist who knew from a young age that weather was her true calling. After receiving a Batchelor of Science in meteorology from Valparaiso University and a Master of Science in earth and atmospheric science from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Fritz worked as a meteorologist at CNN in Atlanta and Weather Underground in San Francisco. She is The Washington Post's deputy weather editor.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2019/01/11/oceans-are-warming-faster-than-we-thought-scientists-suggest-we-brace-impact
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« Reply #1240 on: Yesterday at 06:13:02 pm »

Still mindlessly spamming like a butthead I see! 😁
This strongly suggests you have no understanding of the subject at all beyond mindlessly believing what the loony left media feeds to you.

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« Reply #1241 on: Today at 12:08:23 am »


You strongly suggest to the world that your head is buried in the sand so you can remain pig-ignorant.
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