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Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”


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Author Topic: Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”  (Read 13394 times)
Kiwithrottlejockey
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« Reply #1200 on: October 17, 2018, 11:42:11 pm »

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« Reply #1201 on: October 18, 2018, 03:45:58 pm »

so if they nuke china and russia no more problems and new ice age
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« Reply #1202 on: October 22, 2018, 03:14:16 pm »


from STUFF…

Climate change hits Gardens of Eden and Allah

They're magnificently-named glaciers.

By WILL HARVIE | 12 NOON — Sunday, 21 October 2018

Dr. Pascal Sirguey surveying the Garden of Eden ice plateau about 50km northeast of Aoraki-Mount Cook. — Photograph: Nicolas Cullen.
Dr. Pascal Sirguey surveying the Garden of Eden ice plateau about 50km northeast of
Aoraki-Mount Cook. — Photograph: Nicolus Cullen.


THE Gardens of Eden and Gardens of Allah have been measured for the first time and are retreating due to climate change.

The two magnificently named South Island glaciers about 50km northeast of Aoraki-Mount Cook are so remote and hard to reach that little research on their size and behaviour has been done.

But University of Otago student Angus Dowson​ recently finished his masters of science thesis trialling new methods to measure the glaciers remotely.

Using satellite imagery gathered almost every day between February 2000 and 2017, Dowson found the two related icefields followed the “broad response of glaciers in the Southern Alps to climate” — meaning they have overall retreated.

Mountain glaciers provide “some of the clearest and most sensitive environmental indicators of climate change”, Dowson wrote in his thesis, because their high altitude exposes them to disturbances in regional and global temperatures.

Until now, New Zealand mountain glacier research has largely been done on foot — researchers clamouring over the ice with measuring gear — and NIWA's annual snowline survey.

Going every year since 1978, the annual end-of-summer survey uses small aircraft and and aerial photography to record the permanent snow line — the altitude at which snow remains throughout the year.

This is a proxy for glacier health and whether they are gaining or losing mass.

Dowson's research accomplished much the same thing, except using satellite data gathered daily.

He used a technique called “albedo”, which was recently developed by Otago University academics Pascal Sirguey and Nicolas Cullen and others.

Albedo measures the light reflected off glacier ice and snow and is a proxy for mass balance, Sirguey said in an interview.


Photo map of the Gardens of Eden and Allah, two central South Island glaciers. The West Coast is below the bottom of the image. — Photograph: Dr. Pascal Sirguey.
Photo map of the Gardens of Eden and Allah, two central South Island glaciers.
The West Coast is below the bottom of the image.
 — Photograph: Dr. Pascal Sirguey.


The method was calibrated and truthed on Brewster Glacier near Haast.

Brewster is a relatively accessible glacier and researchers have clamoured and aerial photographed it for years.

Sirguey, Cullen and others used satellite imagery and albedo to estimate mass and got a good match with the older data.

If New Zealand's mountain glaciers substantially melted due to climate change, there would be almost no effect on sea levels.

Rather, the loss of the South Island glaciers would likely impact electricity generation in the southern hydro lakes.

Agriculture could also be impacted as irrigators extract water from rivers and aquifers partly charged by glacier water.

The Gardens of Eden and Allah contribute to the Rangitata River on the east coast and the Wanganui and Whataroa rivers to the west.

The trio of researchers clamoured these icefields earlier this year. In an interview, Dowson said he was amazed by the scale of the glaciers and their remote, wild beauty.

The Garden of Eden was named in 1934 by A.P. Thomson, an early mountaineer who was later president of the Royal Society and head of the NZ Forest Service.

The Garden of Allah was officially named in 1971 in sympathy with the established theme.

The new glacier measurement tool could now be applied to New Zealand's other glaciers, Dowson wrote. The data were collected by the satellite and available for analysis, while new data arrive daily.

While Fox and Franz Josef glaciers are famously retreating, other New Zealand glaciers are advancing.

The data are still limited, but “overall, our glaciers are experiencing retreat,” Sirguey said.


__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • The Gardens of Eden and Allah

 • Thin Ice interactive on NZ glaciers

 • Our barren Alps: Aerial survey shows snow loss ‘incredibly extreme’

 • When the world's glaciers shrunk, New Zealand's grew bigger


https://www.stuff.co.nz/science/107947499/climate-change-hits-gardens-of-eden-and-allah
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« Reply #1203 on: October 23, 2018, 04:30:41 pm »


funny they call it a garden but no trees or plants maybe some after the ice goes away
and who is allah ?
didnt see on the news that allah moved down south

oh shit is this the forst time ever that ice has melted?  thats really sad
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« Reply #1204 on: October 23, 2018, 10:51:54 pm »


I've actually walked across both the Garden of Eden and the Garden of Allah ice plateaus.

But I betcha you haven't ... 'cause you'd be too much of a soft-cock to venture into that sort of terrain on your own two feet.

Say no more.
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« Reply #1205 on: October 23, 2018, 10:52:00 pm »


from The Washington Post…

Listen to the eerie song of Antarctica — melting

Researchers discovered a constant warble in the ice — which then faded to
something like a dial tone during one of the warmest summers on record.


By AVI SELK | 7:00AM EDT — Monday, October 22, 2018



THE ICE warbled to itself for centuries: a discordant song whose verses told the stories of cold winds and shifting snow dunes vibrating across Antarctica.

It wasn't music as we think of it. Days or months might pass between each tonal shift, composed of notes so low and slow they were inaudible to human ears. But if you could lie for 1,000 years on the great Ross Ice Shelf and feel every minute shiver that passed through it — if you were snow itself — then you would know the chorus.

In January 2016, the song went flat.

Sped up thousands of times into the frequency range of human hearing, it sounded as though the ice's warble faded to something like a dial tone — a moaning dirge that lasted for two of the warmest weeks on record for the polar continent. A song that warned of melting snow.

LISTEN.

If the worst fears of climate scientists come true — if in some particularly warm month this century, the 500-mile-long Ross Ice Shelf collapses like a ruined border wall, allowing Antarctica's interior glaciers to flow past it into swelling oceans — we might see little of the calamity's beginning.

When a smaller ice shelf collapsed on the other side of West Antarctica in January 2002, we were blind.

“Scientists monitoring daily satellite images of the Antarctic Peninsula watched in amazement as almost the entire Larsen B Ice Shelf splintered and collapsed in just over one month,” NASA wrote in its memorial to that 10,000-year-old platform of ice.

“It collapsed between pictures of a satellite,” Julien Chaput, a geophysicist at Colorado State University, told The Washington Post. “One picture, it was there. The next, it wasn't.”

But the ice shelf was sick long before its spectacular death. As Chaput explained it, the early stages of disintegration are insidious and largely invisible to satellites.

Repeat heat waves cause the carpet of snow atop the ice shelf to melt and refreeze. With each refreeze, the snow gets harder. Eventually, it gets so hard that pools of water form on the snow's surface and trickle downward, carving tunnels in the snow to reach the ice beneath.

The ice weakens like a rotting boat hull under the meltwater's assault. It cracks. Only near the end is the extent of the damage obvious to satellites, when the entire shelf — ice, snow and all — breaks apart and dissolves into the ocean within days.

This is, to put it mildly, a lousy warning system for the end of the world as we know it.

But as Chaput and his team demonstrated in a paper published by the American Geophysical Union last week, a wounded ice shelf will sing about its troubles long before it shows them to us.

The discovery was “a complete accident,” Chaput said. No one expected ice to sing.

Several years ago, a different team of researchers installed dozens of seismic stations across the Ross Ice Shelf. Like many climate scientists, they were concerned that if the France-size plank of floating ice ever collapses — like Larsen B did in 2002 — titanic glaciers behind it would be free to escape the mainland of Antarctica, eventually raising ocean levels by several feet.

“For now, the Ross Ice Shelf seems to be stable,” Chaput said. “But that could change extremely rapidly and without warning.”

The seismic stations were designed to measure what the Earth's crust and mantle are doing beneath the ice — massive vibrations on the scale of earthquakes.

But as Chaput reviewed the data set from late 2014 to 2017, he noticed something in the sine waves: a subtle song, vibrating through the top layers of snow.

“You had these pitches, these incredibly defined tones, persistent and defined at each station,” he said. “They'd change all the time, with changes in air temperature and storm events and wind events.”

Even the movement of a snow dune could alter the frequencies, Chaput said. It was as if the entire snow bed were grooved out like an old phonograph record, humming with the rustle of the atmosphere above.

The notes hovered around 5 hertz, about a quarter of the lowest frequency human ears can detect. But Chaput could easily speed them up enough to hear — compressing days-long rhythms into minutes or seconds.

That's how he was able to hear what happened in early 2016 — when an especially warm summer came to Antarctica and the phonograph skipped.

Chaput didn't discover the great melt event of January 2016. As Chris Mooney wrote in The Washington Post, it disturbed scientists who learned of it at the time.

The two-week melt left nothing so obvious as a lake on the surface of the Ross Ice Shelf. Rather, it turned a patch of snow the size of Texas wet and slushy as the air temperature rose to above freezing. Scientists detected it at first through the presence of vapor clouds above the ice shelf, Mooney wrote, then used microwave satellites to confirm the damage.

But in the music of the snow, the melting was impossible to miss.

At seismic stations across the ice shelf, the warbling vibrations grew quiet. Notes stretched out into a long drone at some locations, like a tornado siren going off. To Chaput, it sounded like a two-week-long groan.

“It doesn't sound super happy to me," he said.

The music of the ice, he explained, is made by wind passing over snow dunes and sending vibrations through trillions of compressed ice crystals in the snow bed — called a firn. “Snow is 80 percent air, with flaky bonds between crystals,” Chaput said. “As they get weaker, the velocity a wave travels gets lower, so the tones go down. It both lowers and gets quieter.”

All this might simply mean that Chaput found a depressing soundtrack for the melting of an ice cap. But as described in his paper, the music also holds potential as a measurement tool — something like a sonogram for the health of snow and ice in future warming events, of which he expects many.

That doesn't mean we'll like what we hear.

The ancient warble of the Ross Ice Shelf returned shortly after the heat wave ended in late January, as watery snow refroze and crystals reforged their bonds. But at many of the listening stations, it no longer sounds the same. The warble now has something like a rasp.

“You can see the physical impact,” said Chaput, who plans to continue to arctic studies as a faculty member at the University of Texas at El Paso. “When it gets cooled again, the firn partially heals and rebounds in some ways, but not entirely.”

He doesn't know whether the Ross Ice Shelf will regain its original structure and voice, or whether it's been permanently damaged, as the Larsen B Ice Shelf must have been long before it broke apart.

For now, however imperfectly, it continues to sing.


__________________________________________________________________________

Avi Selk worked for many years in factories and service industries — experiences he values. He later graduated from the University of Texas at Austin's journalism program in 2009, then worked for the Dallas Morning News until 2016, when The Washington Post hired him. He reports for the general assignment desk.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • VIDEO: Listen to an ice shelf melting

 • Scientists are slowly unlocking the secrets of the Earth's mysterious hum

 • Scientists stunned by Antarctic rainfall and a melt area bigger than Texas


https://www.washingtonpost.com/energy-environment/2018/10/22/listen-eerie-song-antarctica-melting
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« Reply #1206 on: October 24, 2018, 02:54:07 pm »


from The Washington Post…

There's a perfectly rectangular iceberg floating in Antarctica.
Here's how it got that way.


An iceberg the size of a college campus broke off a large ice shelf
fed by several glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula.


By DEANNA PAUL | 6:00AM EDT — Tuesday, October 23, 2018

A piece of Antarctic iceberg A-68, shown here in 2017, calved from the Larsen C ice shelf. On Wednesday, NASA released a photograph of it, showing it shaped in a nearly perfect rectangle. — Photograph: Mario Tama/Getty Images.
A piece of Antarctic iceberg A-68, shown here in 2017, calved from the Larsen C ice shelf. On Wednesday, NASA released a photograph of it,
showing it shaped in a nearly perfect rectangle. — Photograph: Mario Tama/Getty Images.


A COLLEGE-CAMPUS-SIZE ICEBERG spotted on the Antarctic Peninsula margins is upending public expectations of classic Titanic-esque icebergs, with sharp spires jutting from the ocean surface.

An aerial photo shared by NASA last Wednesday captured a rectangular slab of ice sliced so smoothly that it appears unnatural. Experts believe that the iceberg fractured from Larsen C, a large ice shelf fed by several glaciers on the east side of the peninsula, in May. They're still unsure, however, whether it will cause the rest of the shelf to destabilize.

According to Christopher Shuman, a research scientist at the University of Maryland Baltimore County's Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology at NASA: “The takeaway message is that ice shelves release large icebergs from time to time. They do this naturally.”

It means that the ice shelf is changing, which is not surprising given the changes they've seen nearby, he told The Washington Post.




Larsen A was another ice shelf farther north on the peninsula that broke up in 1995. Larsen B broke up in 2002. Larsen C itself calved an even larger iceberg in 1986, Shuman said. It was recorded at 7,300 square kilometers — larger than Maryland — until last July, when it calved an iceberg the size of Delaware, known as A-68.

The rectangular iceberg, photographed as part of a topographic mapping project tracking changes in polar ice shelves called Operation Ice Bridge, fractured in May, after A-68 crashed into Bawden, a rocky ice-covered island in the northwest, and created several small berg fragments.

“This is not good news for the Larsen C in a general sense,” Shuman said. But the iceberg could continue to be resupplied with ice from land-based glaciers, as it was after the bigger iceberg broke up in 1986.

A larger problem, Shuman said, is that the ice front is as far west as it's ever been, based on satellite imagery. “The fact that the edge is so far west is not a good sign; Larsen A and Larsen B broke up just up the peninsula,” he said.

According to National Snow and Ice Data Center research scientist Twila Moon, it’s also not terribly surprising that the iceberg fractured in straight lines. That's consistent with an iceberg calved from floating ice in that region, she said. Ice is a mineral; it has a crystal-like structure and breaks the way a shard of glass would.

“When a piece of glacial ice is in contact with the ocean floor, the interference at the base causes it to calve off differently, creating misshaped icebergs,” Moon explained. But when an iceberg breaks off from a shelf of floating ice, like Larsen C, there's no friction controlling how it breaks up.

“That's when large tabular icebergs form,” she said, which differ in shape from bulky and pointed non-tabular icebergs.






Like Moon, Shuman said the shape is not surprising, though it's unusual to see such sharp angles.

“It's all about the force of the iceberg striking the ice rise. When ice is fracturing, it tends to break on the line of force,” he said. Moreover, there are other pieces nearby that are relatively rectangular.

“It's a part of the life cycle for ice shelves: They push out far enough that they break off in big chunks,” he said. “We do not know yet for sure that this was climate-change-related or that we're looking at a dramatic change.”

Still, Shuman added, there are other areas with very definite signs that ice fronts are retreating inland dramatically and at a full-blown pace.


__________________________________________________________________________

• Deanna Paul covers national and breaking news for The Washington Post. She recently graduated with honors from Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism. Before joining The Post, Paul spent six years as a New York City prosecutor.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • VIDEO: Listen to an ice shelf melting

 • Listen to the eerie song of Antarctica — melting

 • Watch 10 billion tons of ice fall into the ocean


https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2018/10/24/theres-perfectly-rectangular-iceberg-floating-antarctica-heres-how-it-got-that-way
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« Reply #1207 on: November 01, 2018, 11:14:14 pm »


from The Washington Post…

Startling new research finds large buildup of heat in the oceans,
suggesting a faster rate of global warming


The findings mean the world might have less time to curb carbon emissions.
More than 90 percent of global warming ends up in the oceans.


By CHRIS MOONEY and BRADY DENNIS | 2:00PM EDT — Wednesday, October 31, 2018

A post-sunset swimmer at Moonlight Beach in Encinitas, California, this month. — Photograph: Mike Blake/Reuters.
A post-sunset swimmer at Moonlight Beach in Encinitas, California, this month. — Photograph: Mike Blake/Reuters.

THE world's oceans have been soaking up far more excess heat in recent decades than scientists realized, suggesting that Earth could be set to warm even faster than predicted in the years ahead, according to new research published on Wednesday.

Over the past quarter-century, Earth's oceans have retained 60 percent more heat each year than scientists previously had thought, said Laure Resplandy, a geoscientist at Princeton University who led the startling study published on Wednesday in the journal Nature. The difference represents an enormous amount of additional energy, originating from the sun and trapped by Earth’s atmosphere — the yearly amount representing more than eight times the world's annual energy consumption.

In the scientific realm, the new findings help resolve long-running doubts about the rate of the warming of the oceans before 2007, when reliable measurements from devices called “Argo floats” were put to use worldwide. Before that, differing types of temperature records — and an overall lack of them — contributed to murkiness about how quickly the oceans were heating up.

The higher-than-expected amount of heat in the oceans means more heat is being retained within Earth's climate system each year, rather than escaping into space. In essence, more heat in the oceans signals that global warming is more advanced than scientists thought.

“We thought that we got away with not a lot of warming in both the ocean and the atmosphere for the amount of CO² that we emitted,” said Resplandy, who published the work with experts from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and several other institutions in the United States, China, France and Germany. “But we were wrong. The planet warmed more than we thought. It was hidden from us just because we didn’t sample it right. But it was there. It was in the ocean already.”

Wednesday's study also could have important policy implications. If ocean temperatures are rising more rapidly than previously calculated, that could leave nations even less time to dramatically cut the world's emissions of carbon dioxide, in the hope of limiting global warming to the ambitious goal of 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels by the end of this century.

The world already has warmed one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since the late 19th century. Scientists backed by the United Nations reported this month that with warming projected to steadily increase, the world faces a daunting challenge in trying to limit that warming to only another half-degree Celsius. The group found that it would take “unprecedented” action by leaders across the globe over the coming decade to even have a shot at that goal.

Meanwhile, the Trump administration has continued to roll back regulations aimed at reducing carbon emissions from vehicles, coal plants and other sources and has said it intends to withdraw from the Paris climate accord. In one instance, the administration relied on an assumption that the planet will warm a disastrous seven degrees Fahrenheit, or about four degrees Celsius, by the end of the century in arguing that a proposal to ease vehicle fuel-efficiency standards would have only minor climate impacts.

The new research underscores the potential consequences of global inaction. Rapidly warming oceans mean that seas will rise faster and that more heat will be delivered to critical locations that already are facing the effects of a warming climate, such as coral reefs in the tropics and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

“In case the larger estimate of ocean heat uptake turns out to be true, adaptation to — and mitigation of — our changing climate would become more urgent,” said Pieter Tans, who is the leader of the Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases Group at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and was not involved in the study.

The oceans absorb more than 90 percent of the excess energy trapped within the world's atmosphere.

The new research does not measure the ocean's temperature directly. Rather, it measures the volume of gases, specifically oxygen and carbon dioxide, that have escaped the ocean in recent decades and headed into the atmosphere as it heats up. The method offered scientists a reliable indicator of ocean temperature change because it reflects a fundamental behavior of a liquid when heated.

“When the ocean warms, it loses some gas to the atmosphere,” Resplandy said. “That's an analogy that I make all the time: If you leave your Coke in the sun, it will lose the gas.”

This approach allowed researchers to recheck the contested history of ocean temperatures in a different and novel way. In doing so, they came up with a higher number for how much warming the oceans have experienced over time.

“I feel like this is a triumph of Earth-system science. That we could get confirmation from atmospheric gases of ocean heat content is extraordinary,” said Joellen Russell, a professor and oceanographer at the University of Arizona. “You've got the A team here on this paper.”

But Russell said the findings are hardly as uplifting.

The report “does have implications for climate sensitivity, meaning, how warm does a certain amount of CO² make us?” Russell said, adding that the world could have a smaller “carbon budget” than once thought. That budget refers to the amount of carbon dioxide humans can emit while still being able to keep warming below dangerous levels.

The scientists calculated that because of the increased heat already stored in the ocean, the maximum emissions that the world can produce while still avoiding a warming of two degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) would have to be reduced by 25 percent. That represents a very significant shrinkage of an already very narrow carbon “budget”.

The U.N. panel of climate scientists said recently that global carbon emissions must be cut in half by 2030 if the world hopes to remain beneath 1.5 Celsius of warming. But Resplandy said that the evidence of faster-warming oceans “shifts the probability, making it harder to stay below the 1.5-degree temperature target.”

Understanding what is happening with Earth's oceans is critical, because they, far more than the atmosphere, are the mirror of ongoing climate change.

According to a major climate report released last year by the U.S. government, the world's oceans have absorbed about 93 percent of the excess heat caused by greenhouse gases since the mid-20th century. Scientists have found that ocean heat has increased at all depths since the 1960s, while surface waters also have warmed. The federal climate report projected a global increase in average sea surface temperatures of as much as nearly five degrees Fahrenheit by 2100 if emissions continue unabated, with even higher levels of warming in some U.S. coastal regions.

The world's oceans also absorb more than a quarter of the carbon dioxide emitted annually from human activities — an effect making them more acidic and threatening fragile ecosystems, federal researchers say. “The rate of acidification is unparalleled in at least the past 66 million years,” the government climate report stated.

Paul Durack, a research scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, said on Wednesday's study offers “a really interesting new insight” and is “quite alarming.”

The warming found in the study is “more than twice the rates of long-term warming estimates from the 1960s and '70s to the present,” Durack said, adding that if these rates are validated by further studies, “it means the rate of warming and the sensitivity of the Earth's system to greenhouse gases is at the upper end.” He said that if scientists have underestimated the amount of heat taken up by the oceans, “it will mean we need to go back to the drawing board” on the aggressiveness of mitigation actions the world needs to take promptly to limit future warming.

Beyond the long-term implications of warmer oceans, Russell added that in the short term, even small changes in ocean temperatures can affect weather in specific places. For instance, scientists have said warmer oceans off the coast of New England have contributed to more-intense winter storms.

“We're only just now discovering how important ocean warming is to our daily lives, to our daily weather,” she said.


__________________________________________________________________________

Chris Mooney writes about energy and the environment at The Washington Post. He previously worked at Mother Jones, where he wrote about science and the environment and hosted a weekly podcast. Mooney spent a decade before that as a freelance writer, podcaster and speaker, with his work appearing in Wired, Harper's, Slate, the Los Angeles Times and The Boston Globe, to name a few. He also has published four books about science, politics and climate change.

Brady Dennis is a national reporter for The Washington Post, focusing on the environment and public health issues. He previously spent years covering the nation's economy. Dennis was a finalist for the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for a series of explanatory stories about the global financial crisis. Before that, he was a reporter for the St. Petersburg Times (Florida).

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • VIDEO: U.N. report | Temperatures to rise 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2013-2052

https://www.washingtonpost.com/energy-environment/2018/10/31/startling-new-research-finds-large-buildup-heat-oceans-suggesting-faster-rate-global-warming
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« Reply #1208 on: November 02, 2018, 01:52:52 pm »


I've actually walked across both the Garden of Eden and the Garden of Allah ice plateaus.

But I betcha you haven't ... 'cause you'd be too much of a soft-cock to venture into that sort of terrain on your own two feet.

Say no more.


the Garden of Allah
hahaha "how trendy"


https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=582&v=56b_rmUHUg4

you're so full of yourtself
really i dont give a fuck if you walk on the moon
u silly moronic commie moonbat fruitecake
please hurry up and leave this planet im triggered by your insanity
and i am afraid people like you could breed with bush rats and create white ferral commie spawn from the dark side  Grin
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« Reply #1209 on: November 02, 2018, 02:25:08 pm »

Startling new research finds large buildup of heat in the oceans
the whole universe is warming up

i do hope the world gets warmer
and will be happy to grow bananas
have an orange grove and my own beach right outside my backdoor
what a bad luck if most of the world drowns it wont be the first time

meanwhile outside of your box 
Grin scientist find new problems as they do as scientist need to justify their existence



Scientists Discover a Volcanic Heat Source Beneath Antarctic's Most Vulnerable Glacier
DAVID NIELD 6 JUL 2018

The Pine Island Glacier is known to be the fastest-melting glacier in Antarctica, responsible for around a quarter of the continent's ice loss. According to new research though, a warming planet isn't the only reason the glacier is losing ice.

Based on an analysis of the water surrounding the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which the Pine Island Glacier is part of, there's a volcanic heat source somewhere underneath – and that knowledge is going to be crucial in predicting the future of this huge expanse of ice.

Before we get carried away, despite some headlines out there, this doesn't mean climate change has been replaced as the main cause of the ice melt, according to the international team of researchers.

At this stage the role of the new heat source is unclear, but ice loss already triggered by rising temperatures could be exposing the glacier to more of the volcanic activity.

"Climate change is causing the bulk of glacial melt that we observe, and this newly discovered source of heat is having an as-yet undetermined effect, because we do not know how this heat is distributed beneath the ice sheet," says one of the team, chemical oceanographer Brice Loose from the University of Rhode Island.

"Predicting the rate of sea level rise is going to be a key role for science over the next 100 years, and we are doing that. We are monitoring and modelling these glaciers."

To put it another way, context is key – the surprising discovery doesn't negate all the previous research linking climate change to glacier loss up until this point, but the volcanic heat source could help scientists better understand why the ice sheet is breaking up.

Last year a chunk of ice four times the size of Manhattan broke off the Pine Island Glacier.

The researchers weren't looking for volcanic heat under the ice, but did notice high concentrations of helium-3 gas in the waters of the area – a tell-tale sign of volcanic activity. Further analysis showed a particular isotope of helium associated with an active heat source.



"You can't directly measure normal indicators of volcanism – heat and smoke – because the volcanic rift is below many kilometres of ice," says Loose.

While the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was already known to be on top of a volcanic rift system, up until now there was no evidence of any magmatic (molten rock) activity for the past two thousand years. The helium isotopes give us that.

Finding an active heat source so close to the Pine Island Glacier means scientists might have to seriously rethink their calculations about how fast the sheet might melt and break up... and the kind of sea level rises we might see as a result.

If the whole of Pine Island Glacier were to melt, according to researchers we could potentially be looking at around 50 centimetres (1.7 feet) of global sea level rise.

Changes in the warmth of the winds and the ocean currents around Antarctica are thought to be driving the rapid ice melt, but now there's a new factor to consider – and the next challenge is to work out what additional effect this active volcanic heat source is having.

As climate change weakens and melts the glacier, the pressure on the mantle will be lessened, say the researchers. That could lead to more heat escaping from the rocks below, perhaps accelerating ice loss even further.

"The discovery of volcanoes beneath the Antarctic ice sheet means that there is an additional source of heat to melt the ice, lubricate its passage toward the sea, and add to the melting from warm ocean waters," says one of the researchers, Karen Heywood from the University of East Anglia in the UK.

"It will be important to include this in our efforts to estimate whether the Antarctic ice sheet might become unstable and further increase sea level rise."

https://www.sciencealert.com/pine-island-glacier-antarctica-has-hidden-volcano-heat-underneath
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« Reply #1210 on: November 02, 2018, 02:48:01 pm »


Meanwhile, NIWA are forecasting 30+ degrees Celcius temperatures for the east coast of the North Island and much of the South Island next week and throughout the rest of November and into December. That is totally abnormal weather. Only a stupid moron would ignore those warning signs about a rapidly-warming planet and the increasingly destructive weather patterns that will bring to the entire planet. Already, sea temperatures down-under are reaching record temperatures for spring. And warm sea temperatures bring increasingly-violent tropical cyclones.

No doubt, the stupid flat-earthers/climate-change deniers will continue to bury their heads in the sand, stick their fingers in their ears and screw their eyes tightly shut lest they learn something that intelligent folks worked out years ago. Unfortunately, there are too many stupid morons/deniers in this world. When it becomes so obvious that they cannot deny it any more, those fuckwits will be the ones screaming the loudest as mother earth gets ready to wipe out their grandchildren, great grandchildren and great-great grandchildren. Or perhaps those fuckwits are so selfish and self-centred that they don't give a fuck about their spawn and their spawn's later generations? That senario wouldn't surprise me at all.
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« Reply #1211 on: November 02, 2018, 09:54:09 pm »

abnormal according to what
because we dont have real records going back far enough we dont know what is normal
logic shows us all people are bias this includes scientist
if they all vote and say something is truth it only means they cant change their minds
with no room left to learn what is normal or abnormal

i really hope it gets much warmer its too fucken cold

mother earth has been kind to me so far
in the end everyone dies its ok.
try not to pannic too much when your number comes up
you have nothing to worry about as you dont believe in god,life after death,hell.
dont you believe the science monkeys who wear white coats.
good luck with that.

i cant bury my head in the sand no sand here lol
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« Reply #1212 on: November 20, 2018, 09:21:43 pm »


from The New York Times…

‘Like a Terror Movie’: How Climate Change
Will Cause More Simultaneous Disasters


By the end of this century, some parts of the world could face as many as
six climate-related crises at the same time, researchers have concluded.


By JOHN SCHWARTZ | Monday, November 19, 2018

A seaside neighborhood in Mexico Beach, Florida, devastated by Hurricane Michael this year. — Photograph: Scott Olson/Getty Images.
A seaside neighborhood in Mexico Beach, Florida, devastated by Hurricane Michael this year. — Photograph: Scott Olson/Getty Images.

GLOBAL WARMING is posing such wide-ranging risks to humanity, involving so many types of phenomena, that by the end of this century some parts of the world could face as many as six climate-related crises at the same time, researchers say.

This chilling prospect is described in a paper published on Monday in Nature Climate Change, a respected academic journal, that shows the effects of climate change across a broad spectrum of problems, including heat waves, wildfires, sea level rise, hurricanes, flooding, drought and shortages of clean water.

Such problems are already coming in combination, said the lead author, Camilo Mora of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He noted that Florida had recently experienced extreme drought, record high temperatures and wildfires — and also Hurricane Michael, the powerful Category 4 storm that slammed into the Panhandle last month. Similarly, California is suffering through the worst wildfires the state has ever seen, as well as drought, extreme heat waves and degraded air quality that threatens the health of residents.

Things will get worse, the authors wrote. The paper projects future trends and suggests that, by 2100, unless humanity takes forceful action to curb the greenhouse gas emissions that drive climate change, some tropical coastal areas of the planet, like the Atlantic coast of South and Central America, could be hit by as many as six crises at a time.

That prospect is “like a terror movie that is real,” Dr. Mora said.

The authors include a list of caveats about the research: Since it is a review of papers, it will reflect some of the potential biases of science in this area, which include the possibility that scientists might focus on negative effects more than positive ones; there is also a margin of uncertainty involved in discerning the imprint of climate change from natural variability.

New York can expect to be hit by four climate crises at a time by 2100 if carbon emissions continue at their current pace, the study says, but if emissions are cut significantly that number could be reduced to one. The troubled regions of the coastal tropics could see their number of concurrent hazards reduced from six to three.

The paper explores the ways that climate change intensifies hazards and describes the interconnected nature of such crises. Greenhouse gas emissions, by warming the atmosphere, can enhance drought in places that are normally dry, “ripening conditions for wildfires and heat waves,” the researchers say. In wetter areas, a warmer atmosphere retains more moisture and strengthens downpours, while higher sea levels increase storm surge and warmer ocean waters can contribute to the overall destructiveness of storms.

In a scientific world marked by specialization and siloed research, this multi-disciplinary effort by 23 authors reviewed more than 3,000 papers on various effects of climate change. The authors determined 467 ways in which those changes in climate affect human physical and mental health, food security, water availability, infrastructure and other facets of life on Earth.

The paper concludes that traditional research into one element of climate change and its effects can miss the bigger picture of interrelation and risk.


A search-and-rescue team looking for human remains in the aftermath of the recent Camp Fire in Paradise, California. The state is also suffering from drought, extreme heat waves and degraded air quality. — Photograph: Eric Thayer/for The New York Times.
A search-and-rescue team looking for human remains in the aftermath of the recent Camp Fire in Paradise, California. The state is also suffering
from drought, extreme heat waves and degraded air quality. — Photograph: Eric Thayer/for The New York Times.


Climate change also has different ramifications for the world's haves and have-nots, the authors found: “The largest losses of human life during extreme climatic events occurred in developing nations, whereas developed nations commonly face a high economic burden of damages and requirements for adaptation.”

People are not generally attuned to dealing with problems like climate change, Dr. Mora said. “We as humans don't feel the pain of people who are far away or far into the future,” he said. “We normally care about people who are close to us or that are impacting us, or things that will happen tomorrow.”

And so, he said, people tend to look at events far in the future and tell themselves, “We can deal with these things later, we have more pressing problems now.” But, he added, this research “documented how bad this already is.”

The paper includes an interactive map of the various hazards under different emissions scenarios for any location in the world, produced by Esri, which develops geographic information systems. “We see that climate change is literally redrawing the lines on the map, and revealing the threats that our world faces at every level,” said Dawn Wright, the company’s chief scientist.

Michael E. Mann, a climate scientist at Pennsylvania State University who was not involved in the paper, said it underscored the urgency for action to curb the effects of climate change and showed that “the costs of inaction greatly outweigh the costs of taking action.”

Dr. Mann published a recent paper suggesting that climate change effects on the jet stream are contributing to a range of extreme summer weather events, such as heat waves in North America, Europe and Asia, wildfires in California and flooding in Japan. The new study, he said, dovetails with that research, and “is, if anything, overly conservative” — that is, it may underestimate the threats and costs associated with human-caused climate change.

A co-author of the new paper, Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, hailed its interdisciplinary approach. “There's more than one kind of risk out there,” he said, but scientists tend to focus on their area of research. “Nations, societies in general, have to deal with multiple hazards, and it's important to put the whole picture together.”

Like military leaders developing the capability to fight wars on more than one front, governments have to be ready to face more than one climate crisis at a time, Dr. Emanuel said.

Dr. Mora said he had considered writing a book or a movie that would reflect the frightening results of the research. His working title, which describes how dire the situation is for humanity, is unprintable here. His alternate title, he said, is “We Told You So”.


__________________________________________________________________________

John Schwartz is a science writer for The New York Times, focusing on climate change. Writing for The N.Y. Times since 2000, John has covered law, technology, the space program, infrastructure and more. He also shows up occasionally in The New York Times Book Review, Science Times and the Arts section, and writes a humor column for the business section's mutual funds quarterly.

• A version of this article appears in The New York Times on Tuesday, November 20, 2018, on Page A11 of the New York print edition with the headline: “‘Like a Terror Movie’: How Changing Climate Will Multiply Disasters”.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • How Much Hotter Is Your Hometown Than When You Were Born?

 • Climate Change Is Complex. We've Got Answers to Your Questions.


https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/19/climate/climate-disasters.html
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« Reply #1213 on: November 23, 2018, 04:36:02 pm »

more bullshit fake news
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« Reply #1214 on: November 23, 2018, 04:38:14 pm »

more bullshit fake news


...and America has a fake, bullshit President residing at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.
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« Reply #1215 on: November 29, 2018, 10:17:40 pm »


from The Seattle Times…

Denier-in-chief digs in a little deeper

President Donald Trump says he does not believe the
stark predictions of a new federal climate assessment.


By DAVID HORSEY | 11:13AM PDT — Tuesday, November 27, 2018



THE latest National Climate Assessment, a mandated report produced by scientists tasked for the job by the federal government, paints a dire picture of the myriad ways the economy and environment of the Northwest, as well as the rest of the United States, will soon be undermined by climate change.

If nothing is done to mitigate the effects of global warming, Washington's fisheries and agriculture will be decimated, snowpacks — and ski areas — will grow scarce, wildfires will be even more common and Puget Sound will be more acidic. Nevertheless, the man at the top of the government is in denial.

President Donald Trump, making the dubious claim that he actually looked at the report, told the White House press corps that he does not believe it. This is convenient, since it relieves him of the duty of doing anything about this looming threat to the nation and our region.


__________________________________________________________________________

• See more of David Horsey's cartoons at The Seattle Times HERE.

https://www.seattletimes.com/opinion/denier-in-chief-digs-in-a-little-deeper
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« Reply #1216 on: November 30, 2018, 10:55:06 am »



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« Reply #1217 on: December 06, 2018, 10:40:08 am »

MACRON SUBMITS TO YELLOW VEST REBELLION, CANCELS FUEL TAX HIKE INDEFINITELY



MACRON CARBON TAX A TOTAL FAILURE

VIVA LA REVOLUTION Grin
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« Reply #1218 on: December 06, 2018, 12:15:12 pm »


Do Woodville folks point at you and piss themselves laughing whenever they see you?

'cause if I lived there, that's what I'd be doing ... laughing at the village idiot.
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« Reply #1219 on: December 06, 2018, 08:05:14 pm »

do they laugh at you when you fuck your mother
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« Reply #1220 on: December 06, 2018, 08:37:02 pm »


My mother died many years ago ... IDIOT!! 


(I guess that kinda PROVES you are Woodville's village idiot)
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« Reply #1221 on: December 07, 2018, 09:54:56 am »

people die be your turn soon
and there will be one less powerless retarded little man in the world  Grin
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« Reply #1222 on: December 07, 2018, 04:23:32 pm »


from The Seattle Times…

Global warming today mirrors conditions during
Earth's largest extinction event: UW study


If humans continue to pump greenhouse gases at our current rate, “we have no reason
to think it wouldn't cause a similar type of extinction," said Curtis Deutsch,
a University of Washington professor and author of the research.


By EVAN BUSH | 11:00AM PDT — Thursday, December 06, 2018

A melting iceberg floats along a fjord leading away from the edge of the Greenland ice sheet near Nuuk, Greenland, in 2011. By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent, as much as during the Permian extinction event, newly published research says. — Photograph: Brennan Linsley/The Associated Press.
A melting iceberg floats along a fjord leading away from the edge of the Greenland ice sheet near Nuuk, Greenland, in 2011.
By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent,
as much as during the Permian extinction event, newly published research says.
 — Photograph: Brennan Linsley/The Associated Press.


MORE THAN two-thirds of life on earth died off some 252 million years ago, in the largest mass extinction event in Earth's history.

Researchers have long suspected that volcanic eruptions triggered “the Great Dying,” as the end of the Permian geologic period is sometimes called, but exactly how so many creatures died has been something of a mystery.

Now scientists at the University of Washington and Stanford believe their models reveal how so many animals were killed, and they see frightening parallels in the path our planet is on today.

Models of the effects of volcanic greenhouse-gas releases showed the earth warming dramatically and oxygen disappearing from its oceans, leaving many marine animals unable to breathe, according to a study published on Thursday in the peer-reviewed journal Science. By the time temperatures peaked, about 80 percent of the oceans' oxygen, on average, had been depleted. Most marine animals went extinct.

The researchers tested the model's results against fossil-record patterns from the time of the extinction and found they correlated closely. Although other factors, like ocean acidification, might have contributed some to the Permian extinction, warming and oxygen loss account for the pattern of the dying, according to the research.

By this century's end, if emissions continue at their current pace, humans will have warmed the ocean about 20 percent as much as during the extinction event, the researchers say. By 2300, that figure could be as high as 50 percent.

“The ultimate, driving change that led to the mass extinction is the same driving change that humans are doing today, which is injecting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere,” said Justin Penn, a UW doctoral student in oceanography and the study’s lead author.

Curtis Deutsch, a UW associate professor of oceanography and an author of the research, said if society continues to pump greenhouse gases at our current rate, “we have no reason to think it wouldn't cause a similar type of extinction.”


Massive eruptions

The earth 252 million years ago was a much different place. The continents as we know them today were still mostly one landmass, named Pangea, which looks like a chunky letter “C” on a map.

The climate, however, resembled Earth's now, and researchers believe animals would have adapted many traits, like metabolism, that were similar to creatures today. Nearly every part of the Permian Ocean, before the extinction, was filled with sea life.

“Less than one percent of the Permian Ocean was a dead zone — quite similar to today's ocean,” Deutsch said.

The series of volcanic events in Siberia that many scientists believe set off the mass extinction “makes super volcanoes look like the head of a pin,” said Seth Burgess, a geologist and volcanologist with the United States Geological Survey.

“We're talking about enough lava erupted onto the surface and intruded into the crust to cover the area of the United States that if you looked at the U.S. from above was maybe a kilometer deep in lava,” he said.

Burgess, who has researched the Siberian Traps volcanic events but did not work on the new Science paper, said scientists believe magma rising from the earth released some extinction-causing greenhouse gases.

In addition, sills of magma still inside the earth heated massive deposits of coal, peat and carbonate minerals, among others, which vented even more carbon and methane into the atmosphere.

“That's how you drive the Permian mass extinction, by intruding massive volumes of magma into a basin rich in carbon-bearing sediments,” he said.

The UW and Stanford research “takes the next step in figuring out why things died at the end of the Permian,” Burgess said. “It couples what we think was happening in the climate with the fossil record, and it does it elegantly.”


Animals couldn’t breathe

It took a supercomputer more than six months to simulate all the changes the volcanic eruptions are suspected of causing during the Permian period. The computer models go into remarkable detail — simulating things like clouds, ocean currents and marine plant life — in describing what temperatures and conditions were like on Earth.

The researchers knew that surface temperatures rose about 10 degrees Celsius in the tropics because of previous scientific analysis of the fossilized teeth of eel-like creatures called conodonts.

To run their model, researchers pumped volcanic greenhouse gases into their simulation to match temperature conditions at the end of the Permian period.

As temperatures climbed toward the 10-degree mark, the model's oceans became depleted of oxygen, a trend scientists are evaluating in today's oceans, too.

To measure how rising temperatures and less oxygen would affect animal species of the Permian period, the researchers used 61 modern creatures — crustaceans, fish, shellfish, corals and sharks. The researchers believe these animals would have similar temperature and oxygen sensitivities to Permian species because the animals adapted to live in similar climates.

Warming's effects were twofold on the creatures, the researchers found. In warmer waters, animals need more oxygen to perform bodily functions. But warm waters can't contain as much dissolved oxygen, which means less was available to them.

In other words, as animals' bodies demanded more oxygen, the ocean's supply dropped.

In their model, the researchers were able to quantify the loss of habitat as species faced increasingly challenging ocean conditions. Surface-temperature rise and oxygen loss were more substantial in areas farther from the equator. Extinction rates also increased at higher latitudes.

Animals in the tropics were already accustomed to warmer temperatures and lower oxygen levels before the volcanic eruptions shifted the climate, according to the research. As the world warmed, they could move along with their habitat.

Marine creatures that favored cold waters and high oxygen levels fared worse: They had nowhere to go.

“The high latitudes where it's cold and oxygen is high — if you're an organism that needs those kind of conditions to survive, those conditions completely disappear from Earth,” Deutsch said.

In modern oceans, warming and oxygen loss have also been more pronounced near the poles, researchers said, drawing another analogue between the shift in climate some 252 million years ago and what's happening today.

“The study tells us what's at the end of the road if we let climate [change] keep going. The further we go, the more species we're likely to lose,” Deutsch said. “That's frightening. The loss of species is irreversible.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Evan Bush is a staff reporter at The Seattle Times.

Related to this topic:

More from Science: Climate change and marine mass extinction


https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/environment/global-warming-today-mirrors-conditions-during-earths-largest-extinction-event-uw-study
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« Reply #1223 on: December 07, 2018, 05:03:24 pm »


from The Washington Post…

EDITORIAL: It’s time to face the inescapable truth:
We're running out of time on climate change!


The transition away from fossil fuels will be difficult.
But it is essential for our planet's survival.


By THE WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL BOARD | 7:20PM EDT — Thursday, December 06, 2018

A coal-fired power plant in Germany. Global carbon emissions are estimated to rise by 2.7 percent in 2018. — Photograph: Sascha Steinbach/European Pressphoto Agency/Agencia-EFE/Shutterstock.
A coal-fired power plant in Germany. Global carbon emissions are estimated to rise by 2.7 percent in 2018.
 — Photograph: Sascha Steinbach/European Pressphoto Agency/Agencia-EFE/Shutterstock.


THE WORLD is heading in the wrong direction, and it does not have much time left to change course. After several years in which global greenhouse-gas emissions leveled off, they spiked to record levels this year, according to projections a group of scientists released on Wednesday. Along with some major developing nations, emissions in the United States are projected to grow substantially. So much for all those assurances that the market would take care of the problem.

The news comes just after the United Nations released a report finding that climate change will disrupt human society, kill many people and permanently reshape the Earth unless stemmed aggressively, and soon.

The inescapable truth: The transition from fossil fuels is essential, it is going to be hard, and the United States must step up.

Overall, global emissions are projected to rise by 2.7 percent this year, up more than a point from last year's growth rate. China's emissions are up 5 percent, and India's 6 percent. China remains the world's largest emitter. Even so, its emissions intensity — that is, how much carbon dioxide it spews into the air relative to the size of its economy — has declined substantially in recent years, and the country is still on track to meet the landmark target it set in the Paris climate agreement. India, meanwhile, has lots of poor people struggling to emerge from miserable poverty, who will naturally use more energy as they improve their standard of living. Yet that country is poised to exceed its Paris commitment.

The United States is not, and the country does not have the excuse that its economy is still developing. U.S. emissions are up by 2.5 percent from last year, and it is one of seven major nations lagging on their Paris goals. Canada is also behind, but Prime Minister Justin Trudeau just announced an ambitious carbon-tax plan. The European Union, too, needs to do more to meet its Paris commitment, but its emissions were down this year, and the bloc has worked hard to cut its carbon footprint.

The Trump administration, on the other hand, is trying to push the United States backward. The day after the latest emissions numbers emerged, the Environmental Protection Agency announced another rollback of a regulation on coal-fired power plants, the greatest villains in the climate change story.

The reason for the United States' surge in emissions appears to have been higher energy use to heat and cool homes this year. As the world warms, people will want to use more air conditioning — producing more emissions unless the country gets its energy from low- or zero-carbon sources. This is just one of the many, many factors that make it more sensible to combat climate change before it worsens rather than waiting until it becomes an emergency. World leaders have missed their chance to avoid the warming already here and built into the system. The Trump administration would have humanity miss its window entirely.


__________________________________________________________________________

• Editorials represent the views of The Washington Post as an institution, as determined through debate among members of the Editorial Board. The board includes: Editorial Page Editor Fred Hiatt; Deputy Editorial Page Editor Jackson Diehl; Deputy Editorial Page Editor Ruth Marcus; Associate Editorial Page Editor Jo-Ann Armao, who specializes in education and District affairs; Jonathan Capehart, who focuses on national politics; Lee Hockstader, who writes about immigration, and political and other issues affecting Virginia and Maryland; Charles Lane, who concentrates on economic policy, trade and globalization; Stephen Stromberg, who specializes in energy, the environment, public health and other federal policy; David Hoffman, who writes about foreign affairs and press freedom; Molly Roberts, who focuses on technology and society; and editorial cartoonist Tom Toles. Op-ed editors Michael Larabee, Robert Gebelhoff and Mark Lasswell; letters editor Jamie Riley; international opinions editors Elias Lopez, Karen Attiah and Christian Caryl; international opinions writer Jason Rezaian; digital opinions editor James Downie; operations editor Becca Clemons; editor and writer Christine Emba; and digital producer and writer Mili Mitra also take part in board discussions. The board highlights issues it thinks are important and responds to news events, mindful of stands it has taken in previous editorials and principles that have animated Washington Post editorial boards over time. Articles in the news pages sometimes prompt ideas for editorials, but every editorial is based on original reporting. News reporters and editors never contribute to editorial board discussions, and editorial board members don't have any role in news coverage.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • ‘We are in trouble’. Global carbon emissions reached a record high in 2018.

 • Max Boot: I was wrong on climate change. Why can't other conservatives admit it, too?

 • Robert J. Samuelson: We're on mission impossible to solve global warming

 • Eugene Robinson: Climate change is real. Welcome to the new normal.


https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/its-time-to-face-the-inescapable-truth-were-running-out-of-time-on-climate-change/2018/12/06/d8452156-f99f-11e8-863c-9e2f864d47e7_story.html
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« Reply #1224 on: December 09, 2018, 05:31:11 am »

hope the world heats up sea level rises and everyone dies hahaha

« Last Edit: December 09, 2018, 08:16:29 am by Im2Sexy4MyPants » Report Spam   Logged

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