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Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”


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Author Topic: Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”  (Read 17738 times)
Kiwithrottlejockey
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« Reply #1350 on: January 13, 2020, 07:36:52 pm »



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« Reply #1351 on: January 13, 2020, 07:37:58 pm »


from The Washington Post…

In Australia, the air poses a threat; people are
rushing to hospitals in cities choked by smoke


“It's sort of like medicine meets ‘Mad Max’,” said one doctor.

By DARRYL FEARS and BRADY DENNIS | 4:28PM EST — Sunday, January 12, 2020

Amid an early-morning smoky haze, a man cleans the forecourt of Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.
Amid an early-morning smoky haze, a man cleans the forecourt of Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, on January 5.
 — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.


JENNY EDWARDS didn't want to go back home to Canberra, the Australian capital. She added seven days to a five-day family vacation “specifically to stay out of the smoke.” But it didn't matter.

Within a day of returning, her eyes were irritated, her chest felt tight, her head hurt and a small but persistent cough couldn't clear a tickle in her throat. Three massive fires were still burning about 60 miles away, and even though the heaviest smoke had momentarily lifted, the misery of living in a brownish haze remained. Air quality in Canberra on New Year's Day was among the worst of any major city in the world.

Australia's bush fires have blanketed parts of the continent with pollution, affecting hundreds of thousands of people who are not in immediate danger from the flames. Government agencies and medical officials say distress calls, ambulance runs and hospital emergency room visits have surged. Even some federal departments in the capital had to temporarily shutter offices and tell non-essential staff to stay away.

Stores have seen an overwhelming demand for smoke filtration masks, and in recent days government officials have begun rationing them to particularly vulnerable people, including pregnant women, the elderly and those with chronic heart and lung conditions. On Facebook, residents have posted pictures of doors and windows sealed with thick tape in an effort to keep smoke out their houses. And 7News Sydney posted a “Ciggie Index” — the equivalent number of cigarettes each resident consumes daily from inhaling smoke. In east Sydney, it's 19.

A key question lingers as the fires that began last year continue to burn, in some cases merging into megafires: What are the long-term health implications of so many people exposed to thick smoke for so long?


This photo taken on January 7 by the Royal Australian Air Force shows smoke and haze over mountains in Cooma in New South Wales. — Photograph: Murray Staff/Royal Australian Air Force/Agence France-Presse.
This photo taken on January 7 by the Royal Australian Air Force shows smoke and haze over mountains in Cooma in New South Wales.
 — Photograph: Murray Staff/Royal Australian Air Force/Agence France-Presse.


Wildfire smoke that lingers for weeks doesn't just get into people's eyes and the pores of their skin, researchers say. It enters their minds, settles in their thoughts and affects their mental health. That was a finding from studies following the deadly Black Saturday fires in Victoria in 2009, when both firefighters and residents suffered from post-traumatic stress.

“I'm predicting that the effect is going to be far greater than before because the fires have been burning for such a long time,” said Mirella Di Benedetto, a researcher and clinical psychologist at RMIT University in Melbourne. The 2009 fires were isolated to Victoria, but the current fires are burning nationwide, near Australia's largest cities. “Even where there are no fires, smoke is moving down to these areas,” Di Benedetto said. “The air quality is really bad in Sydney. I think the mental health and physical health impact will be huge in the months to come.”

Little research exists about the long-term consequences of exposure to wildfire smoke, but Kari Nadeau and Mary Prunicki, scientists at Stanford University, are working to change that.

They're closely following hundreds of people affected by devastating wildfires in California, taking blood samples and asking them about everything from their use of air filters to their psychological responses to the experience. Earlier research has linked air pollution from wildfires to a range of acute conditions, including asthma, heart ailments and strokes, but Nadeau and Prunicki hope to solve a deeper mystery.

“Are there irreversible consequences over time?” said Nadeau, director of Stanford's Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research.

The work is urgent, Prunicki said, not only because existing research is limited, but also because the rapidly warming climate is likely to make the unprecedented fires in Australia only more common there and elsewhere around the globe.

“They are not going to go away,” she said.


A man wears a face mask as Bondi Beach in Sydney is shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.
A man wears a face mask as Bondi Beach in Sydney is shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.

In Australia, the smoke is affecting cities in unexpected ways. At one of Canberra's public hospitals, workers kept the hospital's exterior doors shut to keep smoke from clouding the hallways and patient rooms, said David Caldicott, an emergency room physician.

Some nurses wore breathing masks, and the smoke temporarily incapacitated some local MRI machines, he said. At his own house, the smoke detector kept blaring one day until Caldicott finally muffled it with a towel at 3 a.m.

In an arid country where residents are accustomed to a wildfire season, he said, the past weeks have been unlike any he has experienced. “It's sort of like medicine meets ‘Mad Max’,” Caldicott said, referring to the vintage Australian action movie about a dystopian, post-apocalyptic future.

In the state of New South Wales, home to Sydney, health officials said emergency room visits for asthma and breathing problems increased more than 34 percent in the period from December 30 to January 5 compared to a year earlier. Ambulance calls for respiratory issues were also higher, about 2,500 compared to the five-year average of about 1,900. Similarly, hospital admissions increased to more than 430, surpassing the five-year average of 361.

Four of Australia's five largest population centers are experiencing the effects of the fires. At least 25 people have died, nearly 2,000 homes have been destroyed and more than 14 million acres have burned. So much smoke has been produced, there's evidence that some is circumnavigating the planet and has reached South America, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Pedestrians wear masks as smoke shrouds Canberra on January 2. — Photograph: Mark Baker/Associated Press.
Pedestrians wear masks as smoke shrouds Canberra on January 2. — Photograph: Mark Baker/Associated Press.

Bush fires are a known trigger for asthma attacks, said Bruce Thompson, dean of the School of Health Sciences at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne. “This is a very significant health concern. Here in Australia, we're making sure people are moving themselves from the outdoors as best they can,” Thompson said.

Inside bush-fire smoke, water vapor intermingles with tiny particles measured in micrometers. It also contains gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Wood dust from exploded trees and chemicals from melted tires and scorched steel also hitch a ride.

Particles as large as 5 micrometers “stick in your nose; you wake up with a runny nose and itchy eyes,” Thompson said. Particles as small as 2.5 micrometers — known by researchers as PM 2.5 — are scarier, he said. “They can get to the very edges of the lungs,” Thompson said. “We had a coal mine fire a few years ago and it's been demonstrated that four years after, children close to the plume had worse lung function. So this is bad.”

Smaller particles in smoke can hinder cardiac function in adults. Thompson said the developing lungs of children can be permanently damaged in varying degrees.

“The lung becomes inflamed, and you cough as the lung tries to adjust,” Thompson said. “The lung is bad at repairing itself. It tries to get rid of particles by making you cough, but it produces scar tissue, and you don't want that in the lung because it changes the efficiency of the lung.”


A woman wearing a face mask sits near the Sydney Opera House shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.
A woman wearing a face mask sits near the Sydney Opera House shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.

Fay Johnston, an environmental health professor at the University of Tasmania's Menzies Institute for Medical Research, said most people exposed to the smoke won't be harmed — as long as the fires end soon.

“If the smoke goes away, a healthy person can withstand it,” said Johnston, who specializes in the health effects of bush-fire smoke. “Healthy people will come through it without any long-term harm.”

But relief from the yearly rainy season isn't expected until February. Like other researchers, Johnston worries about what will happen if the fires continue, particularly for old and young asthma sufferers. “What's the long-term legacy of it?” she said. “We really don't know.”

Few studies have delved into the consequences of long-term exposure to bush fires. Johnston and other researchers conducted the study Thompson referenced, on health impacts on children and mothers in the wake of a 2014 fire at a Victoria coal mine that burned for more than a month, blanketing the nearby town of Morwell with smoke.

Young children exposed to the smoke were more likely to get an antibiotic prescription in the year after the fire, and pregnant women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes, Johnston said.

Bin Jalaludin, a professor at the University of New South Wales and chief investigator at the Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, said government officials and academics in Australia already have been brainstorming ways to study the long-term health implications of the “truly unprecedented” fires.

“What we want to look at is things like ER visits, deaths, hospitalizations, ambulance call-outs for respiratory problems, birth outcomes — do women who are pregnant and exposed to high levels of smoke, does it have an impact on the newborn?” he said. “It will take time, although we are trying to expedite it and get some of this work done quickly.”


A kangaroo stands in bushland surrounded by an early-morning smoky haze in Canberra on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.
A kangaroo stands in bushland surrounded by an early-morning smoky haze in Canberra on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.

Meanwhile, south of Sydney in Bowral, Peggy Stone said she's fighting off feelings of depression. “We haven't seen the sun for weeks,” she said. The sky is sometimes fiery orange, sometimes smoky gray. The day she spoke, she said, “The sun is trying to penetrate the smoke. Occasionally it might try to get through and we get a little ray.”

Farther south in Canberra, Jenny Edwards, who has asthma, made an appointment to see a doctor.

“I'm quite worried about the next couple of months,” Edwards said. “Air quality is so hard to predict with so many large fires in our region and the possibility of new ones starting.”

She's thinking of leaving Canberra — again. But she knows that option is also risky because it's hard to escape the reach of the fires.

“I am considering returning to stay with my mother-in-law near Lake Macquarie,” she said. “Mind you, there are big fires inland from there, and while staying there last week we had three small fires break out within 10 kilometers of us.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Darryl Fears joined The Washington Post as a general assignment reporter on the Metro staff in 1999. He went on the cover race, demographics and immigration on the national desk, and, for a brief time, urban affairs in the District of Columbia. Before joining The Washington Post, he was a staff writer for the Detroit Free Press, the Atlanta Journal and Constitution and the Los Angeles Times. Darryl has profesional affiliations with the National Association of Black Journalists and the Society of Environmental Journalists. He speaks conversational Spanish (fading for lack of practice).

Brady Dennis is a national reporter for The Washington Post, focusing on the environment and public health issues. He previously spent years covering the nation's economy. Dennis was a finalist for the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for a series of explanatory stories about the global financial crisis. Before that, he was a reporter for the St. Petersburg Times (Florida).

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY: Australia sees worst wildfires in decades


https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2020/01/12/australia-air-poses-threat-people-are-rushing-hospitals-cities-choked-by-smoke
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« Reply #1352 on: January 14, 2020, 07:57:08 pm »



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« Reply #1353 on: January 23, 2020, 06:29:45 am »

https://banned.video/watch?id=5da4ca3b9329370013a6fff5
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Are you sick of the bullshit from the sewer stream media spewed out from the usual Ken and Barby dickless talking point look a likes.

If you want to know what's going on in the real world...
And the many things that will personally effect you.
Go to
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« Reply #1354 on: January 23, 2020, 08:42:33 pm »


I'm not even going to click on that, 'cause I KNOW it will be stupid stuff.
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« Reply #1355 on: January 24, 2020, 11:39:30 am »

i dont expect you to look at it so please dont
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Kiwithrottlejockey
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« Reply #1356 on: April 22, 2020, 02:56:11 pm »


from The Washington Post…

This year is on track to be Earth's warmest on record,
beating 2016, NOAA says


The U.S. oceans and atmosphere agency puts the odds of a new record at 75 percent.

By ANDREW FREEDMAN | 12:37PM EDT — Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A man looks up as police and fire personnel move in to remove climate activists outside a E.U. summit meeting in Brussels on December 12. — Photograph: Francisco Seco/Associated Press.
A man looks up as police and fire personnel move in to remove climate activists outside a E.U. summit meeting in Brussels on December 12.
 — Photograph: Francisco Seco/Associated Press.


THERE IS a 75 percent chance 2020 will set a record for the warmest year since instrument records began in 1880, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration is projecting, beating out 2016 for the distinction.

This is somewhat unexpected, since there is no declared El Niño event in the tropical Pacific Ocean, which tends to provide a natural boost to global temperatures that are already elevated due to the human-caused buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The NOAA projection, made late last week, is based on statistical modeling now that the first quarter of 2020 is off to a near-record warm start, coming in as the second-warmest January through March period since instrument records began in 1880.

Both Europe and Asia had their warmest first quarter of the year. Only 2016 was warmer during this period, and that year featured an unusually intense El Niño event.

Remarkably, the global temperature differences from average in February and March were among the largest of any of the 1,680 months in the agency's records. March had the second largest anomaly of any month, said Derek Arndt, the head of climate monitoring at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information in Asheville, North Carolina, during a news conference call.

February and March were the warmest two non-El Niño months in NOAA’s temperature database, Arndt said.

He said March was also the 44th straight March and 423rd straight month that had global average temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average. March has warmed by 1.2 degrees Fahrenheit (0.7 degrees Celsius) since 1991, he said.


More on the 2020 prediction

Despite the lack of an officially-declared El Niño, in which temperatures in the tropical Pacific must rise above a particular threshold, ocean temperatures have nevertheless been running above average in recent months, Arndt said, contributing to the warm start to 2020.

He said that in 2016, the anomalous warmth was front loaded due to El Niño conditions that peaked early in the year, before easing as the El Niño diminished later. The first quarter of this year has run neck and neck with 2016's temperatures so that if monthly global average temperatures remain relatively steady during the rest of the year, 2020 will move into the top spot, he said.


Year-to-date global temperatures for 2020 compared with the top 10 warmest years. — National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.
Year-to-date global temperatures for 2020 compared with the top 10 warmest years. — National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.

The oceans and atmosphere agency also found there is a 99.9 percent chance 2020 will end up being a top 5-warmest year.

“A lot of that has to do with the fact that the year 2016 became the warmest year on record largely because it was very, very warm in the first half of the year, and it was actually not nearly as impressively warm in the second half of the year,” Arndt said. “So the way this might play out is, by staying close to 2016 early on, it does look like a better than half probability that we will finish the year warmest on record.”

The NOAA is not just making a guess at the final temperature ranking for the year. Instead, scientists are using a statistical model that takes monthly temperatures during the past four decades and generates about 10,000 potential outcomes. With March data included, about three-quarters of the model runs showed 2020 would at least nominally beat 2016.

This model does not incorporate El Niño or La Niña conditions, the latter of which can dampen global average temperatures, so if either of these phenomena develop, the projection may be off target.

Separately, Gavin Schmidt, who leads NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, puts the odds of a record this year at closer to 60 percent, based on NASA's data set, which has slightly different rankings than has NOAA. However, he said that when applying NOAA's methods to NASA’s monthly data, the odds would increase to 67 percent.

Other temperature monitoring agencies such as the U.K. Met Office have forecast 2020 will be one of the top 5 warmest years on record.

In any case, climate scientists do not place too much emphasis in annual rankings for monitoring and attributing global climate change, but rather focus more on long-term trends in greenhouse gas emissions, air and sea temperatures and climate indicators such as melting glaciers, sea level rise and changes in precipitation patterns.

The land and oceans respond to the amount of greenhouse gases in the air, rather than emissions rates, which means the sudden cut in carbon emissions related to the coronavirus pandemic will not affect global average surface temperatures in the near future.


__________________________________________________________________________

Andrew Freedman is an editor for the Capital Weather Gang at The Washington Post. He has long covered science research and policy, with a focus on climate change, extreme weather and the environment. He was among the first reporters to popularize the term “polar vortex” during the infamous East Coast winter of 2013 to 2014. He joined The Washington Post in 2019, having worked as an editor and reporter for Axios, Mashable, Climate Central and other publications. Andrew holds a B.A. in political science from Tufts University; a M.A. in climate and society from Columbia University; and a M.A. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2020/04/21/earth-warmest-year-likely-2020
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