Xtra News Community 2
July 15, 2020, 04:25:58 am
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Welcome to Xtra News Community 2 — please also join our XNC2-BACKUP-GROUP.
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links BITEBACK! XNC2-BACKUP-GROUP Staff List Login Register  

Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”


Pages: 1 ... 50 51 52 53 54 [55]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Some reading for the “anti-warmalists” and “climate-change deniers”  (Read 18039 times)
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1350 on: January 13, 2020, 07:36:52 pm »



Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1351 on: January 13, 2020, 07:37:58 pm »


from The Washington Post…

In Australia, the air poses a threat; people are
rushing to hospitals in cities choked by smoke


“It's sort of like medicine meets ‘Mad Max’,” said one doctor.

By DARRYL FEARS and BRADY DENNIS | 4:28PM EST — Sunday, January 12, 2020

Amid an early-morning smoky haze, a man cleans the forecourt of Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.
Amid an early-morning smoky haze, a man cleans the forecourt of Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, on January 5.
 — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.


JENNY EDWARDS didn't want to go back home to Canberra, the Australian capital. She added seven days to a five-day family vacation “specifically to stay out of the smoke.” But it didn't matter.

Within a day of returning, her eyes were irritated, her chest felt tight, her head hurt and a small but persistent cough couldn't clear a tickle in her throat. Three massive fires were still burning about 60 miles away, and even though the heaviest smoke had momentarily lifted, the misery of living in a brownish haze remained. Air quality in Canberra on New Year's Day was among the worst of any major city in the world.

Australia's bush fires have blanketed parts of the continent with pollution, affecting hundreds of thousands of people who are not in immediate danger from the flames. Government agencies and medical officials say distress calls, ambulance runs and hospital emergency room visits have surged. Even some federal departments in the capital had to temporarily shutter offices and tell non-essential staff to stay away.

Stores have seen an overwhelming demand for smoke filtration masks, and in recent days government officials have begun rationing them to particularly vulnerable people, including pregnant women, the elderly and those with chronic heart and lung conditions. On Facebook, residents have posted pictures of doors and windows sealed with thick tape in an effort to keep smoke out their houses. And 7News Sydney posted a “Ciggie Index” — the equivalent number of cigarettes each resident consumes daily from inhaling smoke. In east Sydney, it's 19.

A key question lingers as the fires that began last year continue to burn, in some cases merging into megafires: What are the long-term health implications of so many people exposed to thick smoke for so long?


This photo taken on January 7 by the Royal Australian Air Force shows smoke and haze over mountains in Cooma in New South Wales. — Photograph: Murray Staff/Royal Australian Air Force/Agence France-Presse.
This photo taken on January 7 by the Royal Australian Air Force shows smoke and haze over mountains in Cooma in New South Wales.
 — Photograph: Murray Staff/Royal Australian Air Force/Agence France-Presse.


Wildfire smoke that lingers for weeks doesn't just get into people's eyes and the pores of their skin, researchers say. It enters their minds, settles in their thoughts and affects their mental health. That was a finding from studies following the deadly Black Saturday fires in Victoria in 2009, when both firefighters and residents suffered from post-traumatic stress.

“I'm predicting that the effect is going to be far greater than before because the fires have been burning for such a long time,” said Mirella Di Benedetto, a researcher and clinical psychologist at RMIT University in Melbourne. The 2009 fires were isolated to Victoria, but the current fires are burning nationwide, near Australia's largest cities. “Even where there are no fires, smoke is moving down to these areas,” Di Benedetto said. “The air quality is really bad in Sydney. I think the mental health and physical health impact will be huge in the months to come.”

Little research exists about the long-term consequences of exposure to wildfire smoke, but Kari Nadeau and Mary Prunicki, scientists at Stanford University, are working to change that.

They're closely following hundreds of people affected by devastating wildfires in California, taking blood samples and asking them about everything from their use of air filters to their psychological responses to the experience. Earlier research has linked air pollution from wildfires to a range of acute conditions, including asthma, heart ailments and strokes, but Nadeau and Prunicki hope to solve a deeper mystery.

“Are there irreversible consequences over time?” said Nadeau, director of Stanford's Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research.

The work is urgent, Prunicki said, not only because existing research is limited, but also because the rapidly warming climate is likely to make the unprecedented fires in Australia only more common there and elsewhere around the globe.

“They are not going to go away,” she said.


A man wears a face mask as Bondi Beach in Sydney is shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.
A man wears a face mask as Bondi Beach in Sydney is shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.

In Australia, the smoke is affecting cities in unexpected ways. At one of Canberra's public hospitals, workers kept the hospital's exterior doors shut to keep smoke from clouding the hallways and patient rooms, said David Caldicott, an emergency room physician.

Some nurses wore breathing masks, and the smoke temporarily incapacitated some local MRI machines, he said. At his own house, the smoke detector kept blaring one day until Caldicott finally muffled it with a towel at 3 a.m.

In an arid country where residents are accustomed to a wildfire season, he said, the past weeks have been unlike any he has experienced. “It's sort of like medicine meets ‘Mad Max’,” Caldicott said, referring to the vintage Australian action movie about a dystopian, post-apocalyptic future.

In the state of New South Wales, home to Sydney, health officials said emergency room visits for asthma and breathing problems increased more than 34 percent in the period from December 30 to January 5 compared to a year earlier. Ambulance calls for respiratory issues were also higher, about 2,500 compared to the five-year average of about 1,900. Similarly, hospital admissions increased to more than 430, surpassing the five-year average of 361.

Four of Australia's five largest population centers are experiencing the effects of the fires. At least 25 people have died, nearly 2,000 homes have been destroyed and more than 14 million acres have burned. So much smoke has been produced, there's evidence that some is circumnavigating the planet and has reached South America, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Pedestrians wear masks as smoke shrouds Canberra on January 2. — Photograph: Mark Baker/Associated Press.
Pedestrians wear masks as smoke shrouds Canberra on January 2. — Photograph: Mark Baker/Associated Press.

Bush fires are a known trigger for asthma attacks, said Bruce Thompson, dean of the School of Health Sciences at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne. “This is a very significant health concern. Here in Australia, we're making sure people are moving themselves from the outdoors as best they can,” Thompson said.

Inside bush-fire smoke, water vapor intermingles with tiny particles measured in micrometers. It also contains gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Wood dust from exploded trees and chemicals from melted tires and scorched steel also hitch a ride.

Particles as large as 5 micrometers “stick in your nose; you wake up with a runny nose and itchy eyes,” Thompson said. Particles as small as 2.5 micrometers — known by researchers as PM 2.5 — are scarier, he said. “They can get to the very edges of the lungs,” Thompson said. “We had a coal mine fire a few years ago and it's been demonstrated that four years after, children close to the plume had worse lung function. So this is bad.”

Smaller particles in smoke can hinder cardiac function in adults. Thompson said the developing lungs of children can be permanently damaged in varying degrees.

“The lung becomes inflamed, and you cough as the lung tries to adjust,” Thompson said. “The lung is bad at repairing itself. It tries to get rid of particles by making you cough, but it produces scar tissue, and you don't want that in the lung because it changes the efficiency of the lung.”


A woman wearing a face mask sits near the Sydney Opera House shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.
A woman wearing a face mask sits near the Sydney Opera House shrouded in haze on January 8. — Photograph: Brent Lewin/Bloomberg News.

Fay Johnston, an environmental health professor at the University of Tasmania's Menzies Institute for Medical Research, said most people exposed to the smoke won't be harmed — as long as the fires end soon.

“If the smoke goes away, a healthy person can withstand it,” said Johnston, who specializes in the health effects of bush-fire smoke. “Healthy people will come through it without any long-term harm.”

But relief from the yearly rainy season isn't expected until February. Like other researchers, Johnston worries about what will happen if the fires continue, particularly for old and young asthma sufferers. “What's the long-term legacy of it?” she said. “We really don't know.”

Few studies have delved into the consequences of long-term exposure to bush fires. Johnston and other researchers conducted the study Thompson referenced, on health impacts on children and mothers in the wake of a 2014 fire at a Victoria coal mine that burned for more than a month, blanketing the nearby town of Morwell with smoke.

Young children exposed to the smoke were more likely to get an antibiotic prescription in the year after the fire, and pregnant women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes, Johnston said.

Bin Jalaludin, a professor at the University of New South Wales and chief investigator at the Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, said government officials and academics in Australia already have been brainstorming ways to study the long-term health implications of the “truly unprecedented” fires.

“What we want to look at is things like ER visits, deaths, hospitalizations, ambulance call-outs for respiratory problems, birth outcomes — do women who are pregnant and exposed to high levels of smoke, does it have an impact on the newborn?” he said. “It will take time, although we are trying to expedite it and get some of this work done quickly.”


A kangaroo stands in bushland surrounded by an early-morning smoky haze in Canberra on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.
A kangaroo stands in bushland surrounded by an early-morning smoky haze in Canberra on January 5. — Photograph: Lukas Coch/Reuters.

Meanwhile, south of Sydney in Bowral, Peggy Stone said she's fighting off feelings of depression. “We haven't seen the sun for weeks,” she said. The sky is sometimes fiery orange, sometimes smoky gray. The day she spoke, she said, “The sun is trying to penetrate the smoke. Occasionally it might try to get through and we get a little ray.”

Farther south in Canberra, Jenny Edwards, who has asthma, made an appointment to see a doctor.

“I'm quite worried about the next couple of months,” Edwards said. “Air quality is so hard to predict with so many large fires in our region and the possibility of new ones starting.”

She's thinking of leaving Canberra — again. But she knows that option is also risky because it's hard to escape the reach of the fires.

“I am considering returning to stay with my mother-in-law near Lake Macquarie,” she said. “Mind you, there are big fires inland from there, and while staying there last week we had three small fires break out within 10 kilometers of us.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Darryl Fears joined The Washington Post as a general assignment reporter on the Metro staff in 1999. He went on the cover race, demographics and immigration on the national desk, and, for a brief time, urban affairs in the District of Columbia. Before joining The Washington Post, he was a staff writer for the Detroit Free Press, the Atlanta Journal and Constitution and the Los Angeles Times. Darryl has profesional affiliations with the National Association of Black Journalists and the Society of Environmental Journalists. He speaks conversational Spanish (fading for lack of practice).

Brady Dennis is a national reporter for The Washington Post, focusing on the environment and public health issues. He previously spent years covering the nation's economy. Dennis was a finalist for the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for a series of explanatory stories about the global financial crisis. Before that, he was a reporter for the St. Petersburg Times (Florida).

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY: Australia sees worst wildfires in decades


https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2020/01/12/australia-air-poses-threat-people-are-rushing-hospitals-cities-choked-by-smoke
Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1352 on: January 14, 2020, 07:57:08 pm »



Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Im2Sexy4MyPants
Absolutely Fabulously Incredibly Shit-Hot Member
*
Posts: 8266



WWW
« Reply #1353 on: January 23, 2020, 06:29:45 am »

https://banned.video/watch?id=5da4ca3b9329370013a6fff5
Report Spam   Logged

Are you sick of the bullshit from the sewer stream media spewed out from the usual Ken and Barby dickless talking point look a likes.

If you want to know what's going on in the real world...
And the many things that will personally effect you.
Go to
http://www.infowars.com/

AND WAKE THE F_ _K UP
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1354 on: January 23, 2020, 08:42:33 pm »


I'm not even going to click on that, 'cause I KNOW it will be stupid stuff.
Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Im2Sexy4MyPants
Absolutely Fabulously Incredibly Shit-Hot Member
*
Posts: 8266



WWW
« Reply #1355 on: January 24, 2020, 11:39:30 am »

i dont expect you to look at it so please dont
Report Spam   Logged

Are you sick of the bullshit from the sewer stream media spewed out from the usual Ken and Barby dickless talking point look a likes.

If you want to know what's going on in the real world...
And the many things that will personally effect you.
Go to
http://www.infowars.com/

AND WAKE THE F_ _K UP
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1356 on: April 22, 2020, 02:56:11 pm »


from The Washington Post…

This year is on track to be Earth's warmest on record,
beating 2016, NOAA says


The U.S. oceans and atmosphere agency puts the odds of a new record at 75 percent.

By ANDREW FREEDMAN | 12:37PM EDT — Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A man looks up as police and fire personnel move in to remove climate activists outside a E.U. summit meeting in Brussels on December 12. — Photograph: Francisco Seco/Associated Press.
A man looks up as police and fire personnel move in to remove climate activists outside a E.U. summit meeting in Brussels on December 12.
 — Photograph: Francisco Seco/Associated Press.


THERE IS a 75 percent chance 2020 will set a record for the warmest year since instrument records began in 1880, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration is projecting, beating out 2016 for the distinction.

This is somewhat unexpected, since there is no declared El Niño event in the tropical Pacific Ocean, which tends to provide a natural boost to global temperatures that are already elevated due to the human-caused buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The NOAA projection, made late last week, is based on statistical modeling now that the first quarter of 2020 is off to a near-record warm start, coming in as the second-warmest January through March period since instrument records began in 1880.

Both Europe and Asia had their warmest first quarter of the year. Only 2016 was warmer during this period, and that year featured an unusually intense El Niño event.

Remarkably, the global temperature differences from average in February and March were among the largest of any of the 1,680 months in the agency's records. March had the second largest anomaly of any month, said Derek Arndt, the head of climate monitoring at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information in Asheville, North Carolina, during a news conference call.

February and March were the warmest two non-El Niño months in NOAA’s temperature database, Arndt said.

He said March was also the 44th straight March and 423rd straight month that had global average temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average. March has warmed by 1.2 degrees Fahrenheit (0.7 degrees Celsius) since 1991, he said.


More on the 2020 prediction

Despite the lack of an officially-declared El Niño, in which temperatures in the tropical Pacific must rise above a particular threshold, ocean temperatures have nevertheless been running above average in recent months, Arndt said, contributing to the warm start to 2020.

He said that in 2016, the anomalous warmth was front loaded due to El Niño conditions that peaked early in the year, before easing as the El Niño diminished later. The first quarter of this year has run neck and neck with 2016's temperatures so that if monthly global average temperatures remain relatively steady during the rest of the year, 2020 will move into the top spot, he said.


Year-to-date global temperatures for 2020 compared with the top 10 warmest years. — National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.
Year-to-date global temperatures for 2020 compared with the top 10 warmest years. — National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.

The oceans and atmosphere agency also found there is a 99.9 percent chance 2020 will end up being a top 5-warmest year.

“A lot of that has to do with the fact that the year 2016 became the warmest year on record largely because it was very, very warm in the first half of the year, and it was actually not nearly as impressively warm in the second half of the year,” Arndt said. “So the way this might play out is, by staying close to 2016 early on, it does look like a better than half probability that we will finish the year warmest on record.”

The NOAA is not just making a guess at the final temperature ranking for the year. Instead, scientists are using a statistical model that takes monthly temperatures during the past four decades and generates about 10,000 potential outcomes. With March data included, about three-quarters of the model runs showed 2020 would at least nominally beat 2016.

This model does not incorporate El Niño or La Niña conditions, the latter of which can dampen global average temperatures, so if either of these phenomena develop, the projection may be off target.

Separately, Gavin Schmidt, who leads NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, puts the odds of a record this year at closer to 60 percent, based on NASA's data set, which has slightly different rankings than has NOAA. However, he said that when applying NOAA's methods to NASA’s monthly data, the odds would increase to 67 percent.

Other temperature monitoring agencies such as the U.K. Met Office have forecast 2020 will be one of the top 5 warmest years on record.

In any case, climate scientists do not place too much emphasis in annual rankings for monitoring and attributing global climate change, but rather focus more on long-term trends in greenhouse gas emissions, air and sea temperatures and climate indicators such as melting glaciers, sea level rise and changes in precipitation patterns.

The land and oceans respond to the amount of greenhouse gases in the air, rather than emissions rates, which means the sudden cut in carbon emissions related to the coronavirus pandemic will not affect global average surface temperatures in the near future.


__________________________________________________________________________

Andrew Freedman is an editor for the Capital Weather Gang at The Washington Post. He has long covered science research and policy, with a focus on climate change, extreme weather and the environment. He was among the first reporters to popularize the term “polar vortex” during the infamous East Coast winter of 2013 to 2014. He joined The Washington Post in 2019, having worked as an editor and reporter for Axios, Mashable, Climate Central and other publications. Andrew holds a B.A. in political science from Tufts University; a M.A. in climate and society from Columbia University; and a M.A. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2020/04/21/earth-warmest-year-likely-2020
Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1357 on: July 04, 2020, 08:24:27 pm »


from The Washington Post…

Rapid Arctic meltdown in Siberia alarms scientists

The Arctic region is enduring its own summer of discontent, with record-breaking temperatures,
raging wildfires, thawing permafrost, crumbling infrastructure and vanishing sea ice.
It was 100 degrees in Siberia on June 20, hotter than Dallas or Houston.


By ISABELLE KHURSHUDYAN, ANDREW FREEDMAN and BRADY DENNIS | 5:56PM EDT — Friday, July 03, 2020

A wildfire in the village of Melnichnaya Pad in Russia's Irkutsk region is seen on May 27, 2019; volunteers managed to stop the fire from spreading to a summer camp for children. — Photograph: Kirill Shipitsin/Tass/Getty Images.
A wildfire in the village of Melnichnaya Pad in Russia's Irkutsk region is seen on May 27, 2019; volunteers managed to stop the fire from spreading
to a summer camp for children. — Photograph: Kirill Shipitsin/Tass/Getty Images.


ALEXANDER DEYEV can still taste the smoke from last year's wildfires that blanketed the towns near his home in southeastern Siberia, and he is dreading their return.

“It just felt like you couldn't breathe at all,” said Deyev, 32, who lives in Irkutsk, a Siberian region along Lake Baikal, just north of the Mongolian border.

But already this year, fires in the spring arrived earlier and with more ferocity, government officials have said. In the territory where Deyev lives, fires were three times as large this April as the year before. And the hot, dry summer lies ahead.

Much of the world remains consumed with the deadly novel coronavirus. The United States, crippled by the pandemic, is in the throes of a divisive presidential campaign and protests over racial inequality. But at the top of the globe, the Arctic is enduring its own summer of discontent.

Wildfires are raging amid ­record-breaking temperatures. Permafrost is thawing, infrastructure is crumbling and sea ice is dramatically vanishing.


An aerial view shows floodwaters after the ice-choked Lena River spilled its banks in remote settlements in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia, on May 13. — Photograph: Andrey Sorokin/Sputnik/Associated Press.
An aerial view shows floodwaters after the ice-choked Lena River spilled its banks in remote settlements in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia, on May 13.
 — Photograph: Andrey Sorokin/Sputnik/Associated Press.


In Siberia and across much of the Arctic, profound changes are unfolding more rapidly than scientists anticipated only a few years ago. Shifts that once seemed decades away are happening now, with potentially global implications.

“We always expected the Arctic to change faster than the rest of the globe,” said Walt Meier, a senior research scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. “But I don't think anyone expected the changes to happen as fast as we are seeing them happen.”

Vladimir Romanovsky, a researcher at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, said the pace, severity and extent of the changes are surprising even to many researchers who study the region for a living. Predictions for how quickly the Arctic would warm that once seemed extreme “underestimate what is going on in reality,” he said. The temperatures occurring in the High Arctic during the past 15 years were not predicted to occur for 70 more years, he said.

Neither Dallas nor Houston has hit 100 degrees yet this year, but in one of the coldest regions of the world, Siberia's “Pole of Cold,” the mercury climbed to 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) on June 20.

If confirmed, the record-breaker in the remote Siberian town of Verkhoyansk, about 3,000 miles east of Moscow, would stand as the highest temperature in the Arctic since record-keeping began in 1885.




The triple-digit record was not a freak event, either, but instead part of a searing heat wave. Verkhoyansk saw 11 straight days with a high temperature of 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius) or above, according to Rick Thoman, a climate scientist at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. The average June high at that location is just 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius).

This week, Ust'-Olenek, Russia, about 450 miles north of the Arctic Circle, recorded a temperature of 93.7 degrees Fahrenheit (34.3 degrees Celsius), about 40 degrees above average for the date. On May 22, the Siberian town of Khatanga, located well north of the Arctic Circle, recorded a temperature of 78 degrees Fahrenheit — about 46 degrees above normal.

Much of Siberia experienced an exceptionally mild winter, followed by a warmer-than-average spring, and it has been among the most unusually warm regions of the world during 2020. During May, parts of Siberia saw an average monthly temperature that was a staggering 18 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees Celsius) above average for the month, according to the European Union’s Copernicus Climate Change Service.

“To me, these are kind of the key ingredients of things you expect in a warming climate,” Freja Vamborg, a senior scientist at Copernicus, said of the recent heat records, coupled with prolonged months of higher-than-average temperatures.

The persistent warmth has helped to fuel wildfires, eviscerate sea ice and destabilize homes and other buildings constructed on thawing permafrost. It allegedly even contributed to a massive fuel spill in Norilsk in late May that prompted Russian President Vladimir Putin to declare a state of emergency in the environmentally sensitive region.

Already, sea ice in the vicinity of Siberia is running at record-low levels for any year since reliable satellite monitoring began in 1979.

Scientists have long maintained that the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. But in reality, the region is now warming at nearly three times the global average. Data from NASA shows that since 1970, the Arctic has warmed by an average of 5.3 degrees Fahrenheit (2.94 degrees Celsius), compared with the global average of 1.71 degrees Fahrenheit (0.95 degrees Celsius) during the same period. Scientists refer to the phenomenon as “Arctic amplification.”


Amid an unprecedented heat wave, children play in Krugloe Lake outside Verkhoyansk in Russia's Sakha Republic on June 21. — Photograph: Olga Burtseva/Associated Press.
Amid an unprecedented heat wave, children play in Krugloe Lake outside Verkhoyansk in Russia's Sakha Republic on June 21.
 — Photograph: Olga Burtseva/Associated Press.


Employees of Russia’s state-owned oil pipeline monopoly Transneft take part in a cleanup operation on June 10, following a massive oil spill in the Ambarnaya River outside Norilsk. — Photograph: Irina Yarinskaya/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images.
Employees of Russia’s state-owned oil pipeline monopoly Transneft take part in a cleanup operation on June 10, following a massive oil spill
in the Ambarnaya River outside Norilsk. — Photograph: Irina Yarinskaya/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images.


The melting of snow and ice earlier in the spring exposes darker land surfaces and ocean waters. This switches these areas from being net reflectors of incoming solar radiation to heat absorbers, which further increases land and sea temperatures. That means more warmth in the air, more melting of snow and ice, and drying of vegetation in a way that creates more fuel for wildfires.

What happens in the Arctic matters for the rest of the globe. Greenland ice melt is already the biggest contributor to sea-level rise worldwide, studies show. The loss of Arctic sea ice is also thought to be leading to more-extreme weather patterns far outside the Arctic, in a complex series of ripple effects that may be partly responsible for extreme heat and precipitation events that have claimed thousands of lives in recent years.

The fires that have erupted in Siberia this summer have been massive, sending out plumes of smoke that have covered a swath of land spanning about 1,000 miles at times. While much of the fire activity has occurred in the Sakha Republic, known for such blazes, scientists are observing more fires farther north, above the Arctic Circle, in peatlands and tundra.

“This seems to be a new pattern,” said Jessica McCarty, a researcher at Miami University in Ohio. In past years, fires “were sparse if not unheard of in these regions.”

One concern is that such fires could be destabilizing peatlands and permafrost — the carbon-rich frozen soil that covers nearly a quarter of the Northern Hemisphere's land mass, stretching across large parts of Alaska, Canada, Siberia and Greenland.

Merritt Turetsky, director of the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado at Boulder, said fires in Siberia are burning “in areas where we expect permafrost to be more vulnerable.” Typically, these fires would break out in July and August, but this year they spiked in May, a sign of the unusual heat and early snow melt.

Turetsky said the fires are removing the blanket of vegetation that covers permafrost, making it more vulnerable to melting.


An aerial view on April 23 of the ruins of a summer house destroyed by a fire in a dacha community in Moshkovo district, in Novosibirsk in southern Siberia. The region is experiencing hundreds of fires believed to have been caused by burning old grass. — Photograph: Kirill Kukhmar/Tass/Getty Images.
An aerial view on April 23 of the ruins of a summer house destroyed by a fire in a dacha community in Moshkovo district, in Novosibirsk in southern Siberia.
The region is experiencing hundreds of fires believed to have been caused by burning old grass. — Photograph: Kirill Kukhmar/Tass/Getty Images.


A forest fire in the central Sakha Republic on June 2. — Photograph: Yevgeny Sofroneyev/Tass/Getty Images.
A forest fire in the central Sakha Republic on June 2. — Photograph: Yevgeny Sofroneyev/Tass/Getty Images.

Satellite observations of Arctic wildfires in June also showed that fires this year are emitting more greenhouse gases than the record Arctic fires in 2019, according to Mark Parrington, who tracks wildfires around the world with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service.

Some of these blazes appear to be what are known as “zombie fires,” which survive the winter season smoldering underground only to erupt again once snow and ice melts the following spring. Similar fires have been observed in Alaska this summer.

Ted Schuur, a professor at Northern Arizona University who researches permafrost emissions, said the rapid warming is turning the Arctic into a net emitter of greenhouse gases — a disconcerting shift that threatens to dramatically hasten global warming. The unusually mild conditions in Siberia are particularly worrisome, as the region is home to the largest zone of continuous permafrost in the world.

There has long been concern throughout the scientific community that the approximately 1,460 billion to 1,600 billion metric tons of organic carbon stored in frozen Arctic soils, from Russia to Alaska to Canada, could be released as the permafrost melts. That is almost twice the amount of greenhouse gases trapped in the atmosphere. Recent research by Schuur and others shows that warmer temperatures allow microbes within the soil to convert permafrost carbon into carbon dioxide and methane.

A report late last year that Schuur co-authored found that permafrost ecosystems could be releasing as much as 1.1 billion to 2.2 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year — nearly as much as the annual emissions of Japan and Russia in 2018, respectively.

“A decade ago we thought more of the permafrost would be resistant to change,” said Schuur. The more scientists look for destabilizing permafrost and an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, the more they find such evidence.

Rapid warming has altered their calculations. “We're basically setting records in the Arctic year after year,” Schuur said. “These emissions are now adding to our climate change problem. What happens in Siberia is going to affect everything through the global climate system.”


Permafrost, seen at the top of a cliff, melts into the Kolyma River in eastern Siberia on July 6, 2019. — Photograph: Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post.
Permafrost, seen at the top of a cliff, melts into the Kolyma River in eastern Siberia on July 6, 2019.
 — Photograph: Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post.


Cranes tower over a coal station in the Siberian town of Zyryanka on the Kolyma River on July 9, 2019. — Photograph: Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post.
Cranes tower over a coal station in the Siberian town of Zyryanka on the Kolyma River on July 9, 2019.
 — Photograph: Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post.


Researchers have watched as the changes sweeping the Arctic threaten major infrastructure, including homes and cities in the region.

“Will roads, buildings, oil and gas pipelines be able to survive without emergency [interventions], due to permafrost degradation?” Alexander Fedorov, deputy director of the Melnikov Permafrost Institute in the regional capital of Yakutsk, said in an email. “One must live on stable lands. In Siberia and the Arctic, many settlements and infrastructure were built before global warming, before there were problems. The main thing is not to be late with the solutions, because many villages are located in dangerous and vulnerable areas.”

For all the disconcerting signals coming out of the Arctic right now, the potential for troubling events remains high in the coming months, Meier said.

Sea ice typically reaches its minimum in September, he noted. Ice melt accelerates in Greenland during June and July. Wildfires have the potential to worsen as summer drags on. Intense summer storms can cause permafrost degradation and worsen coastal erosion.

“Certainly, 2020 is a strange year all around, for a lot of reasons beyond climate,” Meier said. “But it's certainly setting up to be an extreme year in the Arctic.”

That might seem like a distant problem to the rest of the world. But those who study the Arctic insist the rest of us should pay close attention.

“When we develop a fever, it's a sign. It's a warning sign that something is wrong and we stop and we take note,” Turetsky said. “Literally, the Arctic is on fire. It has a fever right now, and so it's a good warning sign that we need to stop, take note and figure out what's going on.”


__________________________________________________________________________

Isabelle Khurshudyan reported from Moscow. Olga Massov in Washington D.C. contributed to this report.

Isabelle Khurshudyan is a foreign correspondent based in Moscow. A University of South Carolina graduate, she has worked at The Washington Post since 2014, previously as a sports reporter covering the Washington Capitals, high school sports and local colleges.

Andrew Freedman is an editor for the Capital Weather Gang at The Washington Post. He has long covered science research and policy, with a focus on climate change, extreme weather and the environment. He was among the first reporters to popularize the term “polar vortex” during the infamous East Coast winter of 2013 to 2014. He joined The Washington Post in 2019, having worked as an editor and reporter for Axios, Mashable, Climate Central and other publications. Andrew was educated at Tufts University, where he earned a B.A. in political science; at Columbia University, where he earned a M.A. in Climate and Society; and he holds a M.A. from Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

Brady Dennis is a national reporter for The Washington Post, focusing on the environment. He previously has covered food and drug issues, public health crises such as the Ebola epidemic, and the nation's economy, including the global financial crisis that began in 2008. He worked for the St. Petersburg (Florida) Times and The Seattle Times prior to coming to The Washington Post. Brady was educated at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

__________________________________________________________________________

Related to this topic:

 • Dangerous new hot zones are spreading around the world

 • Radical warming in Siberia leaves millions on unstable ground


https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/rapid-arctic-meltdown-in-siberia-alarms-scientists/2020/07/03/4c1bd6a6-bbaa-11ea-bdaf-a129f921026f_story.html
Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 
Kiwithrottlejockey
Admin Staff
XNC2 GOD
*
Posts: 31013


Having fun in the hills!


« Reply #1358 on: July 05, 2020, 10:04:40 am »



Report Spam   Logged

If you aren't living life on the edge, you're taking up too much space! 

Pages: 1 ... 50 51 52 53 54 [55]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Open XNC2 Smileys
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum


Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy
Page created in 0.125 seconds with 12 queries.