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APOLLO: when men visited (and walked on) the moon


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Author Topic: APOLLO: when men visited (and walked on) the moon  (Read 103 times)
Kiwithrottlejockey
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« on: October 04, 2015, 03:37:45 pm »


from The Washington Post....

Over 9,000 Apollo moon mission pictures
are now online, here are some of the best


PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY | Saturday, October 03, 2015

Every picture ever made during the Apollo moon missions has been made available on Flickr through the Project Apollo Archive. Here are some of the most interesting ones, including this shot of an astronaut strolling on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Every picture ever made during the Apollo moon missions has been made available on Flickr through the Project Apollo Archive. Here are some
of the most interesting ones, including this shot of an astronaut strolling on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Apollo 11's lunar module inspection and rendezvous. This was the very first manned mission to the moon from NASA.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Apollo 11's lunar module inspection and rendezvous. This was the very first manned mission to the moon from NASA.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Commander Eugene A. Cernan, left, and command module pilot Ronald E. Evans aboard Apollo 17. Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Commander Eugene A. Cernan, left, and command module pilot Ronald E. Evans aboard Apollo 17. Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


An astronaut drives the lunar roving vehicle during the Apollo 15 mission. It was the fourth manned mission to the moon and was launched on July 26th, 1971.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
An astronaut drives the lunar roving vehicle during the Apollo 15 mission. It was the fourth manned mission to the moon and was launched
on July 26th, 1971. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Apollo 15 is shown in lunar orbit. Astronauts on board included David R. Scott, commander; Alfred J. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Apollo 15 is shown in lunar orbit. Astronauts on board included David R. Scott, commander; Alfred J. Worden, command module pilot;
and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Lunar module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt shaves on board Apollo 17. Schmitt was one of three astronauts on the mission, and he was the only trained geologist to walk on the moon.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Lunar module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt shaves on board Apollo 17. Schmitt was one of three astronauts on the mission, and he was the
only trained geologist to walk on the moon. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


The Apollo 15 mission was the fourth mission by NASA to land men on the moon. The mission was also the first time astronauts used the lunar roving vehicle.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
The Apollo 15 mission was the fourth mission by NASA to land men on the moon. The mission was also the first time astronauts used
the lunar roving vehicle. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


An astronaut walks on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission, the very first manned mission to the moon by NASA. Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong were the first human beings to walk on the moon.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
An astronaut walks on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission, the very first manned mission to the moon by NASA. Buzz Aldrin and
Neil Armstrong were the first human beings to walk on the moon. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Apollo 12 was the second manned mission to the moon, featuring astronauts Charles (Pete) Conrad Jr., Richard F. Gordon and Alan L. Bean. Here, condensation is seen on a window during lunar orbit.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Apollo 12 was the second manned mission to the moon, featuring astronauts Charles (Pete) Conrad Jr., Richard F. Gordon and Alan L. Bean.
Here, condensation is seen on a window during lunar orbit. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


An astronaut walks on the moon during the Apollo 12 mission, which was the second manned lunar mission carried out by NASA.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
An astronaut walks on the moon during the Apollo 12 mission, which was the second manned lunar mission carried out by NASA.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Apollo 14 is suspended in space, manned by Alan B. Shepard Jr., the commander; Stuart A. Roosa, the command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell. It was the third manned lunar mission, during which Shepard hit two golf balls on the moon.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Apollo 14 is suspended in space, manned by Alan B. Shepard Jr., the commander; Stuart A. Roosa, the command module pilot;
and Edgar D. Mitchell. It was the third manned lunar mission, during which Shepard hit two golf balls on the moon.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Orbiting the earth during the Apollo 7 moon mission. During this mission, the crew orbited the Earth 163 times and spent 10 days and 20 hours in space.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
Orbiting the earth during the Apollo 7 moon mission. During this mission, the crew orbited the Earth 163 times and spent 10 days
and 20 hours in space. Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


An astronaut drives the lunar roving vehicle on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission. Of all the missions, astronauts traveled the longest distance using the rover and returned to Earth with the largest amount of rock and soil samples.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
An astronaut drives the lunar roving vehicle on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission. Of all the missions, astronauts travelled
the longest distance using the rover and returned to Earth with the largest amount of rock and soil samples.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


One of the many photos of the moon that came out of the Apollo missions. This one is from the Apollo 17 mission during lunar orbit.  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.
One of the many photos of the moon that came out of the Apollo missions. This one is from the Apollo 17 mission during lunar orbit.
  Photograph: NASA/The Project Apollo Archive.


Click on each individual image to download a full-sized version.

__________________________________________________________________________

View more photographs:

  PROJECT APOLLO ARCHIVE @ Flickr


https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/see-some-of-the-best-apollo-moon-mission-pictures/2015/10/03/4b2bc558-6a06-11e5-9223-70cb36460919_gallery.html
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Kiwithrottlejockey
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« Reply #1 on: October 08, 2015, 06:49:34 pm »


from The Washington Post....

The first-ever private mission to the moon
just got a lot closer to reality


By BRIAN FUNG | 5:17PM - Wednesday, October 07, 2015

The Hopper, SpaceIL's moon lander. — Picture: Courtesy of SpaceIL.
The Hopper, SpaceIL's moon lander. — Picture: Courtesy of SpaceIL.

AN Israeli nonprofit that's competing to land the first private rover on the moon took a giant leap Wednesday when it said it has secured a spot on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket to be launched in the latter half of 2017.

The non-profit, SpaceIL, is one of 16 teams participating in Google's Lunar XPRIZE competition. The challenge, which launched in 2007, calls for successfully landing an unmanned vehicle on the moon, driving it a third of a mile and then sending high-definition images back to Earth.

Securing a verified launch contract gives SpaceIL's rover a place inside a capsule within the rocket, which will carry other, non-SpaceIL payloads as well. The group said the contract wouldn't have been possible without the help of software billionaire Morris Kahn and Sheldon Adelson (yes, that Sheldon Adelson), whose two charities led a fundraising round that helped seal the deal.

“The #NewSpaceRace is on!” Google tweeted on Wednesday.

The other teams in the competition have until the end of 2016 to sign their own launch contracts so that they can complete the trip no later than the end of 2017.




• Brian Fung covers technology for The Washington Post, focusing on telecommunications and the Internet. Before
joining the Post, he was the technology correspondent for National Journal and an associate editor at The Atlantic.


https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2015/10/07/the-first-ever-private-mission-to-the-moon-just-got-a-lot-closer-to-reality
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« Reply #2 on: October 13, 2015, 04:07:54 pm »


from the Wairarapa Times-Age....

NASA image goes into online orbit

By NATHAN CROMBIE | 6:00AM - Saturday, 10 October 2015

BACKDROP: A shot of Wairarapa and both islands with astronauts Robert L Curbeam jnr. (left), and Christer Fuglesang during their construction mission to the ISS.  Photograph: NASA S116E05983.
BACKDROP: A shot of Wairarapa and both islands with astronauts Robert L Curbeam jnr. (left), and Christer Fuglesang during their construction mission to the ISS.
  Photograph: NASA S116E05983.


A SNAPSHOT of Wairarapa taken from a height of about 400km above the surface of the earth is tracking an orbit in virtual space.

The photograph was taken during the Discovery Space Shuttle STS-116 mission to the International Space Station (ISS).

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released the image on June 3rd this year to mark five decades of US spacewalks.

The astronauts pictured are American Robert L Curbeam jnr., on the left of the picture, with European Space Agency (ESA) officer Christer Fuglesang on the right. Both STS-116 mission specialists took part in the mission's first of three planned sessions of spacewalking as construction continued on the ISS.

Cook Strait, North and South islands, and Wairarapa backdrop the image, which was taken from the space station on December 12th in 2006.

The high definition shot was captured as the space station orbited earth at a height of about 400km above the ground, while hurtling across the face of the heavens at more than 27,000km/h.

The image was yesterday still tracking an off-world path through virtual space and had rocketed through a count of more than 3000 social media shares; helped lift off a burgeoning flock of tweets on Twitter; and was gravitating likes and comments to itself as the cover image on the Wairarapa Times-Age Facebook page.

The first American to take a spacewalk, or extravehicular activity (EVA) in astro-speak, was Edward H White II, who floated into the vastness of space on June 3rd, 1965, during the Gemini IV mission.

White manoeuvred himself for more than 20 minutes around the Gemini as the spacecraft hurtled over Hawaii to the Gulf of Mexico making his orbital stroll 6,500 miles long, the NASA website states.

NASA astronauts have since performed spacewalks on the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle and space station programmes and have also explored the lunar surface, completed 82 spacewalks outside the space shuttle and 187 spacewalks outside the ISS to date.

A total of 166 hours of spacewalks had also been completed during service missions to the Hubble Space Telescope.


http://www.nzherald.co.nz/wairarapa-times-age/news/article.cfm?c_id=1503414&objectid=11526661
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« Reply #3 on: October 17, 2015, 02:04:20 pm »



(click on the picture to read the news story)
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« Reply #4 on: October 19, 2015, 11:40:23 am »


from The Washington Post....

George Mueller, NASA engineer who
helped enable moon landing, dies at 97


By MARTIN WEIL | 8:43PM - Saturday, October 17, 2015

Dr. Mueller, at center, with other mission officials after the successful Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16th, 1969. — Photograph: NASA.
Dr. Mueller, at center, with other mission officials after the successful Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16th, 1969. — Photograph: NASA.

GEORGE MUELLER, a coolly decisive, hard-driving engineer, scientist and administrator who was given much of the credit for enabling NASA to meet President John F. Kennedy's manned moon landing timetable, as well as for initiating the Skylab and space shuttle programs, died on October 12th at his home in Irvine, California. He was 97.

His death was announced by NASA. The cause was congestive heart failure, said Arthur Slotkin, a family spokesman.

As head of NASA's Office of Manned Spaceflight, with the title of associate administrator, Dr. Mueller bore much of the burden of seeing to it that the space agency's Apollo program met the challenge Kennedy issued in a celebrated 1961 address: landing a man on the moon — and bringing him back — by the end of the 1960s.

During the Cold War, a manned moon landing became a major American goal and was considered a symbol of the country's will and determination, particularly in view of what was perceived as a space race with the arch adversary of the time, the Soviet Union.

In Dr. Mueller, NASA was said to have installed in one of its top posts a man of great abilities, in both engineering and administration, and a leader who understood both rocket science and human psychology. At key moments, according to space histories, he showed himself to be adept at assessing risk and to be bold in acting on his assessments.

One of his significant contributions was what came to be known as the “all up” philosophy of rocket and spacecraft testing. As its name suggests, “all up” was a form of examining everything to be used for a space mission all at once, as opposed to incremental modes of proceeding inch by slow inch.

As applied to the space program, it implied specifically such techniques as the testing of all three stages of the giant Saturn V booster rocket while they were coupled together and with a payload attached to boot. It was reported that the scheme had its doubters, among them such leading lights of rocketry as Wernher von Braun.

But in time, the forceful Dr. Mueller proved persuasive enough to overcome all such reservations, and it was “all up” for the mammoth Saturn V, the launch vehicle upon which NASA pinned its hopes of sending Americans to the moon.

Ultimately, a NASA history reads, “it is clear that without all-up testing the first manned lunar landing could not have taken place as early as 1969,” the last year that met Kennedy's schedule.

The same NASA history went on to say that Dr. Mueller's “bold telescoping of the overall plan bore magnificent fruit.” Frank Borman's Apollo 8 crew orbited the moon on Christmas 1968, and in the next year, the sixth Saturn V took Neil Armstrong's Apollo 11 to the first manned lunar landing.

In an interview for a Smithsonian Institution publication, Dr. Mueller indicated that some of his assurance was borne of necessity.

“Well,” he told Air & Space magazine, “one thing that gave me the confidence is that there wasn't any other way we were going to get the program done on the schedule that we had.”

But he maintained that he was not being rash in sending Apollo 8 to circle the moon after the 6.5 million-pound rocket that was to lift it into space had flown only twice, neither time carrying men aloft.

“It wouldn't have gone if I hadn't been comfortable,” he said. “I spent about four months that summer looking at every possible way that it could fail, and convinced myself that it wasn't going to fail,” he said. “So we went forward with it.”

In the same interview, he observed that his sort of decision-making would no longer carry the day.

“We have too many people who believe in absolute safety,” although “there is no such thing,” he said. Moreover, he added, “if you designed your program to be absolutely safe, you'd also be sure you'd absolutely never fly.”

Yes, he suggested, he did run a risk, but it was only “a reasonable risk.” What he would have ruled out, he said, was “an unreasonable risk.” A method of distinguishing one from the other, he implied, entailed imagining the worst that could happen, and then deciding whether that danger could be overcome.


Dr. Mueller briefs President Kennedy and other officials on the Saturn V rocket. — Photograph: NASA.
Dr. Mueller briefs President Kennedy and other officials on the Saturn V rocket. — Photograph: NASA.

In January 1967, NASA suffered one of its most devastating setbacks to that point. Three astronauts were killed in a fire during a launch pad test. The response given then by NASA's administrator, James E. Webb, helped show how Dr. Mueller was regarded. Despite the tragedy, Dr. Mueller would remain in his job, Webb said, because he was “one of the ablest men in the world.”

Dr. Mueller himself had something to say that was also illuminating.

“As far as I can tell,” he said in an oral history, “I have a different reaction to stress than many people do.” His approach, he indicated, was not to dwell on failure, nor to let it cause him to lose heart.

Rather, he said, the proper approach was “one of taking a look at the problems and saying, now, this is what needs to be done, and then working with the people to get their thinking process going again.”

George Edwin Mueller was born in St. Louis on July 16th, 1918, a few months before the end of World War I.

As a boy, he was captivated by science fiction, and he built model airplanes powered by rubber bands. Radio was coming into vogue, and he built his own receiving sets. At what was then the Missouri School of Mines, a technical school, he studied electrical engineering and received a bachelor's degree in 1939. He received a master's degree, also in electrical engineering, from Purdue University in Indiana in 1940.

As a young graduate, he held jobs in which he worked on the development of microwave tubes, television and radar. He worked at Bell Labs in New Jersey and took graduate courses at Princeton University.

As an assistant professor of electrical engineering at Ohio State University, he worked toward his doctorate, receiving a PhD in physics in 1951.

In the 1950s, he went to work in the aerospace industry. After joining Ramo-Wooldridge Corp., he remained there through a merger into what was to become TRW. He played an important role in the development of the intercontinental ballistic missile, and he began to formulate his “all up” program of testing.

“You don't want to be testing piece-wise in space,” he was quoted as saying. For complex systems, “all up” was vital, he said, because it was not possible to predict what component might fail, but with an entire system being tested, “you have a reasonable chance” of finding what had not performed.

In the 1960s, work on rockets became increasingly associated with NASA, and ultimately, Dr. Mueller was drawn in at a high level, starting as deputy associate administrator. His power and authority steadily increased.

In addition to his management of the moon program, he helped design Skylab, America's first space station, and spoke out strongly in favor of a lower-cost, reusable launch vehicle. The space shuttle embodied some of the concepts of reusability that he advocated.

After the moon landing, Dr. Mueller left NASA in December 1969, at what he suggested was the proper moment. Given the workings of the bureaucracy and government, he once said, “it's clear that you have a limited time of effectiveness in Washington if you really are doing anything.”

He returned to the space industry. He was an executive with General Dynamics and then held the top posts at System Development. Later he joined and led Kistler Aerospace, one of the private firms that has tried to develop means for launching payloads into orbit. His honors include the National Medal of Science.

Dr. Mueller's marriage to Maude Rosenbaum ended in divorce. Survivors include his wife of 37 years, the former Darla Hix Schwartzman, of Irvine; two daughters from his first marriage, Jean Porter of West Liberty, Kentucky, and Karen Hyvonen of South Hadley, Massachusetts; two stepchildren whom he helped raise, Wendy Schwartzman of Calabasas, California, and Bill Schwartzman of Villa Park, Califfornia; 13 grandchildren; and 13 great-grandchildren.

Beyond the competitive aspects of the space race, Dr. Mueller believed in the importance of space exploration.

“The only question,” he once said, was “whether this nation will prevail in space … or will we abandon the future to others?”

In 1967, well before the term “knowledge economy” came into common use, he urged that the space program be continued beyond Apollo.

“Today,” he argued, “knowledge, as well as guns and butter, measures the true power of modern states.” Space exploration did not impede efforts to improve life on earth, he said, but rather it “contributes to the fundamental solution of these problems.”


https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/george-mueller-nasa-engineer-who-helped-enable-moon-landing-dies-at-97/2015/10/17/0645240a-7476-11e5-8d93-0af317ed58c9_story.html
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